IRIDIA BibTeX Repository
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References

[1]

AAAI.
35th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence: Reproducibility
Checklist.
https://aaai.org/Conferences/AAAI21/reproducibilitychecklist/, 2021.
Last accessed: June 6th, 2021.
[ bib ]

[2]

ACM.
Artifact Review and Badging Version 1.1.
https://www.acm.org/publications/policies/artifactreviewandbadgingcurrent,
August 2020.
[ bib ]

[3]

Emile H. L. Aarts, Jan H. M. Korst, and Wil Michiels.
Simulated Annealing.
In E. K. Burke and G. Kendall, editors, Search Methodologies,
pages 187–210. Springer, Boston, MA, 2005.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[4]

Hussein A. Abbass.
The selfadaptive Pareto differential evolution algorithm.
In Proceedings of the 2002 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC'02), pages 831–836, Piscataway, NJ, 2002. IEEE Press.
[ bib ]

[5]

Hussein A. Abbass, Ruhul Sarker, and Charles Newton.
PDE: a Paretofrontier differential evolution approach for
multiobjective optimization problems.
In Proceedings of the 2001 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC'01), pages 971–978, Piscataway, NJ, 2001. IEEE Press.
[ bib ]

[6]

F. Ben Abdelaziz, S. Krichen, and J. Chaouachi.
A hybrid heuristic for multiobjective knapsack problems.
In M. G. C. Resende and J. Pinho de Souza, editors, Proceedings
of MIC 1997, the 2nd Metaheuristics International Conference, pages
205–212, 1997.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[7]

David Abramson, Mohan Krishna Amoorthy, and Henry Dang.
Simulated annealing cooling schedules for the school timetabling
problem.
AsiaPacific Journal of Operational Research, 16(1):1–22,
1999.
[ bib ]

[8]

David Abramson.
Constructing School Timetables Using Simulated Annealing:
Sequential and Parallel Algorithms.
Management Science, 37(1):98–113, 1991.
[ bib ]

[9]

A. Acan.
An external memory implementation in ant colony optimization.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, 4th International Workshop, ANTS 2004, volume 3172 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 73–84. Springer, Heidelberg, 2004.
[ bib ]
Keywords: memorybased ACO

[10]

A. Acan.
An external partial permutations memory for ant colony
optimization.
In G. R. Raidl and J. Gottlieb, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP
2005 – 5th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial
Optimization, volume 3448 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
1–11. Springer, Heidelberg, 2005.
[ bib ]
Keywords: memorybased ACO

[11]

Tobias Achterberg.
SCIP: Solving constraint integer programs.
Mathematical Programming Computation, 1(1):1–41, July 2009.
[ bib ]
http://mpc.zib.de/archive/2009/1/Achterberg2009_Article_SCIPSolvingConstraintIntegerPr.pdf

[12]

Tobias Achterberg and Timo Berthold.
Improving the feasibility pump.
Discrete Optimization, 4(1):77–86, 2007.
[ bib ]

[13]

HéctorGabriel AcostaMesa, Fernando RechyRamírez, Efrén
MezuraMontes, Nicandro CruzRamírez, and Rodolfo Hernández
Jiménez.
Application of time series discretization using evolutionary
programming for classification of precancerous cervical lesions.
Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 49:73–83, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: irace

[14]

Bernardetta Addis, Marco Locatelli, and Fabio Schoen.
Disk Packing in a Square: A New Global Optimization Approach.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(4):516–524, 2008.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[15]

B. AdensoDíaz.
Restricted Neighborhood in the Tabu Search for the Flowshop
Problem.
European Journal of Operational Research, 62(1):27–37, 1992.
[ bib ]

[16]

B. AdensoDíaz and Manuel Laguna.
FineTuning of Algorithms Using Fractional Experimental Design
and Local Search.
Operations Research, 54(1):99–114, 2006.
[ bib ]

[17]

Bekir Afsar, Kaisa Miettinen, and Francisco Ruiz.
Assessing the Performance of Interactive Multiobjective
Optimization Methods: A Survey.
ACM Computing Surveys, 54(4), 2021.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Interactive methods are useful decisionmaking tools for
multiobjective optimization problems, because they allow a
decisionmaker to provide her/his preference information
iteratively in a comfortable way at the same time as (s)he
learns about all different aspects of the problem. A wide
variety of interactive methods is nowadays available, and
they differ from each other in both technical aspects and
type of preference information employed. Therefore, assessing
the performance of interactive methods can help users to
choose the most appropriate one for a given problem. This is
a challenging task, which has been tackled from different
perspectives in the published literature. We present a
bibliographic survey of papers where interactive
multiobjective optimization methods have been assessed
(either individually or compared to other methods). Besides
other features, we collect information about the type of
decisionmaker involved (utility or value functions,
artificial or human decisionmaker), the type of preference
information provided, and aspects of interactive methods that
were somehow measured. Based on the survey and on our own
experiences, we identify a series of desirable properties of
interactive methods that we believe should be assessed.
Keywords: decisionmakers, Interactive methods, performance assessment,
preference information, multiobjective optimization problems

[18]

Hernán E. Aguirre and Kiyoshi Tanaka.
Working principles, behavior, and performance of MOEAs on
MNKlandscapes.
European Journal of Operational Research, 181(3):1670–1690,
2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[19]

Hernán E. Aguirre and Kiyoshi Tanaka.
ManyObjective Optimization by Space Partitioning and Adaptive
εRanking on MNKLandscapes.
In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.K. Hao, and
M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO
2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
407–422. Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib ]

[20]

Hernán E. Aguirre.
Advances on Manyobjective Evolutionary Optimization.
In C. Blum and E. Alba, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion, GECCO Companion 2013, pages
641–666, New York, NY, 2013. ACM Press.
[ bib ]
Keywords: manyobjective evolutionary optimization

[21]

Samad Ahmadi and Ibrahim H. Osman.
Density Based Problem Space Search for the Capacitated
Clustering pMedian Problem.
Annals of Operations Research, 131:21–43, 2004.
[ bib ]

[22]

A. Aho, J. Hopcroft, and J. Ullman.
Data structures and algorithms.
AddisonWesley, Reading, MA, 1983.
[ bib ]

[23]

Ali Ahrari, Saber Elsayed, Ruhul Sarker, Daryl Essam, and Carlos A. Coello
Coello.
Weighted pointwise prediction method for dynamic multiobjective
optimization.
Information Sciences, 546:349–367, 2021.
[ bib ]

[24]

R. K. Ahuja, O. Ergun, and A. P. Punnen.
A Survey of Very Largescale Neighborhood Search Techniques.
Discrete Applied Mathematics, 123(1–3):75–102, 2002.
[ bib ]

[25]

R. K. Ahuja, T. Magnanti, and J. B. Orlin.
Network Flows: Theory, Algorithms and Applications.
PrenticeHall, 1993.
[ bib ]

[26]

Uwe Aickelin, Edmund K. Burke, and Jingpeng Li.
Improved Squeaky Wheel Optimisation for Driver Scheduling.
In T. P. Runarsson, H.G. Beyer, E. K. Burke, J.J. Merelo,
D. Whitley, and X. Yao, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature –
PPSN IX, volume 4193 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
182–191. Springer, Heidelberg, 2006.
[ bib ]

[27]

Sandip Aine, Rajeev Kumar, and P. P. Chakrabarti.
Adaptive parameter control of evolutionary algorithms to improve
qualitytime tradeoff.
Applied Soft Computing, 9(2):527–540, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: anytime

[28]

Hassene Aissi and Bernard Roy.
Robustness in Multicriteria Decision Aiding.
In M. Ehrgott, J. R. Figueira, and S. Greco, editors, Trends in
Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, volume 142 of International Series
in Operations Research & Management Science, chapter 4, pages 87–121.
Springer, US, 2010.
[ bib ]

[29]

S. M. Aktürk, Alper Atamtürk, and S. Gürel.
A Strong Conic Quadratic Reformulation for MachineJob
Assignment with Controllable Processing Times.
Research Report BCOL.07.01, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, 2007.
[ bib ]

[30]

I. Alaya, Christine Solnon, and Khaled Ghédira.
Ant Colony Optimization for MultiObjective Optimization
Problems.
In 19th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial
Intelligence (ICTAI 2007), volume 1, pages 450–457. IEEE Computer Society
Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 2007.
[ bib ]

[31]

I. Alaya, Christine Solnon, and Khaled Ghédira.
Ant algorithm for the multidimensional knapsack problem.
In B. Filipič and J. Šilc, editors, International
Conference on Bioinspired Optimization Methods and their Applications (BIOMA
2004), pages 63–72, 2004.
[ bib 
http ]

[32]

Enrique Alba and Francisco Chicano.
ACOhg: dealing with huge graphs.
In D. Thierens et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2007, pages 10–17. ACM Press,
New York, NY, 2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[33]

A. A. Albrecht, P. C. R. Lane, and K. Steinhöfel.
Analysis of Local Search Landscapes for kSAT Instances.
Mathematics in Computer Science, 3(4):465–488, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[34]

Aldeida Aleti and Irene Moser.
A systematic literature review of adaptive parameter control
methods for evolutionary algorithms.
ACM Computing Surveys, 49(3, Article 56):35, October 2016.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[35]

Alnur Ali and Marina Meilă.
Experiments with Kemeny ranking: What Works When?
Mathematical Social Science, 64(1):28–40, July 2012.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Computational Foundations of Social Choice
Keywords: Borda ranking, Kemeny ranking

[36]

Mohamad Alissa, Kevin Sim, and Emma Hart.
Algorithm Selection Using Deep Learning without Feature
Extraction.
In M. LópezIbáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle,
editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
Conference, GECCO 2019, pages 198–206, New York, NY, 2019. ACM Press.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[37]

Ali Allahverdi and Harun Aydilek.
Algorithms for nowait flowshops with total completion time
subject to makespan.
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology,
pages 1–15, 2013.
[ bib ]

[38]

Richard Allmendinger and Joshua D. Knowles.
Evolutionary Search in Lethal Environments.
In International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory
and Applications, pages 63–72. SciTePress, 2011.
[ bib 
DOI 
eprint ]

[39]

Richard Allmendinger.
Tuning evolutionary search for closedloop optimization.
PhD thesis, The University of Manchester, UK, 2012.
[ bib ]

[40]

Christian Almeder.
A hybrid optimization approach for multilevel capacitated
lotsizing problems.
European Journal of Operational Research, 200(2):599–606,
2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Solving multilevel capacitated lotsizing problems
is still a challenging task, in spite of increasing
computational power and faster algorithms. In this
paper a new approach combining an antbased
algorithm with an exact solver for (mixedinteger)
linear programs is presented. A MAXMIN ant system
is developed to determine the principal production
decisions, a LP/MIP solver is used to calculate
the corresponding production quantities and
inventory levels. Two different local search methods
and an improvement strategy based on reduced
mixedinteger problems are developed and integrated
into the ant algorithm. This hybrid approach
provides superior results for small and mediumsized
problems in comparison to the existing approaches in
the literature. For largescale problems the
performance of this method is among the best
Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Manufacturing, Material
requirements planning, Mixedinteger programming

[41]

A. Alsheddy and E. Tsang.
Guided Pareto local search and its application to the 0/1
multiobjective knapsack problems.
In M. Caserta and S. Voß, editors, Proceedings of MIC 2009,
the 8th Metaheuristics International Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2010.
University of Hamburg.
[ bib ]

[42]

S. Alupoaei and S. Katkoori.
Ant Colony System Application to Marcocell Overlap Removal.
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)
Systems, 12(10):1118–1122, 2004.
[ bib ]

[43]

Sanae Amani, Mahnoosh Alizadeh, and Christos Thrampoulidis.
Linear Stochastic Bandits Under Safety Constraints.
In H. M. Wallach, H. Larochelle, A. Beygelzimer,
F. d'AlchéBuc, E. B. Fox, and R. Garnett, editors, Advances in
Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 32), pages 9256–9266, 2019.
[ bib 
eprint ]

[44]

C. Amir, A. Badr, and I Farag.
A Fuzzy Logic Controller for Ant Algorithms.
Computing and Information Systems, 11(2):26–34, 2007.
[ bib ]

[45]

Christophe Andrieu, Nando de Freitas, Arnaud Doucet, and Michael I. Jordan.
An Introduction to MCMC for Machine Learning.
Machine Learning, 50(12):5–43, 2003.
[ bib ]

[46]

K. A. Andersen, K. Jörnsten, and M. Lind.
On bicriterion minimal spanning trees: An approximation.
Computers & Operations Research, 23(12):1171–1182, 1996.
[ bib ]

[47]

Klaus Andersen, René Victor Valqui Vidal, and Villy Bæk Iversen.
Design of a Teleprocessing Communication Network Using Simulated
Annealing.
In R. V. V. Vidal, editor, Applied Simulated Annealing, pages
201–215. Springer, 1993.
[ bib ]

[48]

J. H. Andersen and R. S. Powell.
The Use of Continuous Decision Variables in an Optimising Fixed
Speed Pump Scheduling Algorithm.
In R. S. Powell and K. S. Hindi, editors, Computing and Control
for the Water Industry, pages 119–128. Research Studies Press Ltd., 1999.
[ bib ]

[49]

Y. P. Aneja and K. P. K. Nair.
Bicriteria Transportation Problem.
Management Science, 25(1):73–78, 1979.
[ bib ]

[50]

Eric Angel, Evripidis Bampis, and Laurent Gourvés.
Approximating the Pareto curve with local search for the
bicriteria TSP(1,2) problem.
Theoretical Computer Science, 310(13):135–146, 2004.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: Archiving, Local search, Multicriteria TSP,
Approximation algorithms

[51]

D. Anghinolfi, A. Boccalatte, M. Paolucci, and C. Vecchiola.
Performance Evaluation of an Adaptive Ant Colony Optimization
Applied to Single Machine Scheduling.
In X. Li et al., editors, Simulated Evolution and Learning, 7th
International Conference, SEAL 2008, volume 5361 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 411–420. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008.
[ bib ]

[52]

Daniel Angus and Clinton Woodward.
Multiple Objective Ant Colony Optimisation.
Swarm Intelligence, 3(1):69–85, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[53]

Daniel Angus.
PopulationBased Ant Colony Optimisation for Multiobjective
Function Optimisation.
In M. Randall, H. A. Abbass, and J. Wiles, editors, Progress in
Artificial Life (ACAL), volume 4828 of Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, pages 232–244. Springer, Heidelberg, 2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[54]

Kurt Anstreicher, Nathan Brixius, JeanPierre Goux, and Jeff Linderoth.
Solving large quadratic assignment problems on computational
grids.
Mathematical Programming Series B, 91(3):563–588, February
2002.
[ bib 
DOI ]
The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is among the hardest
combinatorial optimization problems. Some instances of size
n = 30 have remained unsolved for decades. The solution of
these problems requires both improvements in mathematical
programming algorithms and the utilization of powerful
computational platforms. In this article we describe a novel
approach to solve QAPs using a stateoftheart
branchandbound algorithm running on a federation of
geographically distributed resources known as a computational
grid. Solution of QAPs of unprecedented complexity, including
the nug30, kra30b, and tho30 instances, is reported.

[55]

J. Ansel, S. Kamil, K. Veeramachaneni, J. RaganKelley, J. Bosboom, UnaMay
O'Reilly, and S. Amarasinghe.
OpenTuner: An extensible framework for program autotuning.
In Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Parallel
Architectures and Compilation, pages 303–315, New York, NY, 2014. ACM
Press.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[56]

Carlos Ansótegui, Yuri Malitsky, Horst Samulowitz, Meinolf Sellmann, and
Kevin Tierney.
ModelBased Genetic Algorithms for Algorithm Configuration.
In Q. Yang and M. Wooldridge, editors, Proceedings of the
TwentyFourth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence
(IJCAI15), pages 733–739. IJCAI/AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA, 2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: GGA++

[57]

Carlos Ansótegui, Yuri Malitsky, and Meinolf Sellmann.
MaxSAT by Improved InstanceSpecific Algorithm Configuration.
In D. Stracuzzi et al., editors, Proceedings of the AAAI
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 2594–2600. AAAI Press, 2014.
[ bib ]

[58]

Carlos Ansótegui, Meinolf Sellmann, and Kevin Tierney.
A GenderBased Genetic Algorithm for the Automatic Configuration
of Algorithms.
In I. P. Gent, editor, Principles and Practice of Constraint
Programming, CP 2009, volume 5732 of Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, pages 142–157. Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: GGA

[59]

David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook.
Implementing the DantzigFulkersonJohnson Algorithm for
Large Traveling Salesman Problems.
Mathematical Programming Series B, 97(1–2):91–153, 2003.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[60]

David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook.
Finding Cuts in the TSP.
Technical Report 95–05, DIMACS Center, Rutgers University,
Piscataway, NJ, USA, March 1995.
[ bib ]

[61]

David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook.
On the Solution of Traveling Salesman Problems.
Documenta Mathematica, Extra Volume ICM III:645–656, 1998.
[ bib ]

[62]

David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook.
Finding Tours in the TSP.
Technical Report 99885, Forschungsinstitut für Diskrete
Mathematik, University of Bonn, Germany, 1999.
[ bib ]

[63]

J. S. Appleby, D. V. Blake, and E. A. Newman.
Techniques for producing school timetables on a computer and
their application to other scheduling problems.
The Computer Journal, 3(4):237–245, 1961.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[64]

David Applegate and William J. Cook.
A Computational Study of the JobShop Scheduling Problem.
ORSA Journal on Computing, 3(2):149–156, 1991.
[ bib ]

[65]

David Applegate, William J. Cook, and André Rohe.
Chained LinKernighan for Large Traveling Salesman
Problems.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 15(1):82–92, 2003.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[66]

David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook.
The Traveling Salesman Problem: A Computational Study.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2006.
[ bib ]

[67]

David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, William J. Cook,
D. Espinoza, M. Goycoolea, and Keld Helsgaun.
Certification of an Optimal TSP Tour Through 85,900 Cities.
Operations Research Letters, 37(1):11–15, 2009.
[ bib ]

[68]

Jay April, Fred Glover, James P. Kelly, and Manuel Laguna.
Simulationbased optimization: Practical introduction to
simulation optimization.
In S. E. Chick, P. J. Sanchez, D. M. Ferrin, and D. J. Morrice,
editors, Proceedings of the 35th Winter Simulation Conference: Driving
Innovation, volume 1, pages 71–78, New York, NY, December 2003. ACM Press.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[69]

Florian Arnold, Ítalo Santana, Kenneth Sörensen, and Thibaut Vidal.
PILS: Exploring highorder neighborhoods by pattern mining and
injection.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1912.11462, 2019.
[ bib 
http ]

[70]

Florian Arnold and Kenneth Sörensen.
Knowledgeguided local search for the vehicle routing problem.
Computers & Operations Research, 105:32–46, 2019.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[71]

Florian Arnold and Kenneth Sörensen.
What makes a VRP solution good? The generation of
problemspecific knowledge for heuristics.
Computers & Operations Research, 106:280–288, 2019.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[72]

Sanjeev Arora and Boaz Barak.
Computational complexity: a modern approach.
Cambridge University Press, 2009.
[ bib ]

[73]

Marvin A. Arostegui Jr, Sukran N. Kadipasaoglu, and Basheer M. Khumawala.
An empirical comparison of tabu search, simulated annealing, and
genetic algorithms for facilities location problems.
International Journal of Production Economics, 103(2):742–754,
2006.
[ bib ]

[74]

José Elias C. Arroyo and V. A. Armentano.
A partial enumeration heuristic for multiobjective flowshop
scheduling problems.
Journal of the Operational Research Society, 55(9):1000–1007,
2004.
[ bib ]

[75]

José Elias C. Arroyo and V. A. Armentano.
Genetic local search for multiobjective flowshop scheduling
problems.
European Journal of Operational Research, 167(3):717–738,
2005.
[ bib ]
Keywords: Multicriteria Scheduling

[76]

José Elias C. Arroyo and Joseph Y.T. Leung.
An Effective Iterated Greedy Algorithm for Scheduling Unrelated
Parallel Batch Machines with Nonidentical Capacities and Unequal Ready
Times.
Computers and Industrial Engineering, 105:84–100, 2017.
[ bib ]

[77]

Etor Arza, Josu Ceberio, Aritz Pérez, and Ekhine Irurozki.
Approaching the quadratic assignment problem with kernels of
mallows models under the hamming distance.
In M. LópezIbáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle,
editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
Conference Companion, GECCO Companion 2019. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2019.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: QAP, EDA, Mallows

[78]

Y. Asahiro, K. Iwama, and E. Miyano.
Random Generation of Test Instances with Controlled Attributes.
In D. S. Johnson and M. A. Trick, editors, Cliques, Coloring,
and Satisfiability: Second DIMACS Implementation Challenge, volume 26 of
DIMACS Series on Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer
Science, pages 377–393. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI,
1996.
[ bib ]

[79]

N. Ascheuer, Matteo Fischetti, and M. Grötschel.
Solving asymmetric travelling salesman problem with time windows
by branchandcut.
Mathematical Programming, 90:475–506, 2001.
[ bib ]

[80]

N. Ascheuer.
Hamiltonian Path Problems in the Online Optimization of
Flexible Manufacturing Systems.
PhD thesis, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1995.
[ bib ]

[81]

Alper Atamtürk.
On the facets of the mixed–integer knapsack polyhedron.
Mathematical Programming, 98(1):145–175, 2003.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[82]

R. Atkinson, Jakobus E. van Zyl, Godfrey A. Walters, and Dragan A. Savic.
Genetic algorithm optimisation of levelcontrolled pumping
station operation.
In Water network modelling for optimal design and management,
pages 79–90. Centre for Water Systems, Exeter, UK, 2000.
[ bib ]

[83]

Charles Audet, CongKien Dang, and Dominique Orban.
Algorithmic Parameter Optimization of the DFO Method with the
OPAL Framework.
In K. Naono, K. Teranishi, J. Cavazos, and R. Suda, editors,
Software Automatic Tuning: From Concepts to StateoftheArt Results, pages
255–274. Springer, 2010.
[ bib ]

[84]

Charles Audet, CongKien Dang, and Dominique Orban.
Optimization of Algorithms with OPAL.
Mathematical Programming Computation, 6(3):233–254, 2014.
[ bib ]

[85]

P. Audze and Vilnis Eglãjs.
New approach to the design of multifactor experiments.
Problems of Dynamics and Strengths, 35:104–107, 1977.
(in Russian).
[ bib ]

[86]

Charles Audet and Dominique Orban.
Finding Optimal Algorithmic Parameters Using DerivativeFree
Optimization.
SIAM Journal on Optimization, 17(3):642–664, 2006.
[ bib ]

[87]

Peter Auer.
Using Confidence Bounds for ExploitationExploration
Tradeoffs.
Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3:397–422, November
2002.
[ bib ]
We show how a standard tool from statistics — namely
confidence bounds — can be used to elegantly deal with
situations which exhibit an exploitationexploration
tradeoff. Our technique for designing and analyzing
algorithms for such situations is general and can be applied
when an algorithm has to make exploitationversusexploration
decisions based on uncertain information provided by a random
process. We apply our technique to two models with such an
exploitationexploration tradeoff. For the adversarial
bandit problem with shifting our new algorithm suffers only
O((ST)^{1/2}) regret with high probability over T trials
with S shifts. Such a regret bound was previously known
only in expectation. The second model we consider is
associative reinforcement learning with linear value
functions. For this model our technique improves the regret
from O(T^{3/4}) to O(T^{1/2}).

[88]

Peter Auer, Nicolo CesaBianchi, and Paul Fischer.
Finitetime analysis of the multiarmed bandit problem.
Machine Learning, 47(23):235–256, 2002.
[ bib ]

[89]

Anne Auger, Johannes Bader, Dimo Brockhoff, and Eckart Zitzler.
Articulating User Preferences in ManyObjective Problems by
Sampling the Weighted Hypervolume.
In F. Rothlauf, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2009, pages 555–562. ACM Press,
New York, NY, 2009.
[ bib ]

[90]

Anne Auger, Johannes Bader, Dimo Brockhoff, and Eckart Zitzler.
Investigating and Exploiting the Bias of the Weighted
Hypervolume to Articulate User Preferences.
In F. Rothlauf, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and
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Anne Auger, Johannes Bader, Dimo Brockhoff, and Eckart Zitzler.
Theory of the hypervolume indicator: optimal μdistributions
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Anne Auger, Johannes Bader, Dimo Brockhoff, and Eckart Zitzler.
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[93]

Anne Auger, Dimo Brockhoff, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Kaisa Miettinen,
Boris Naujoks, and Günther Rudolph.
Which questions should be asked to find the most appropriate
method for decision making and problem solving? (Working Group
“Algorithm Design Methods”).
In S. Greco, J. D. Knowles, K. Miettinen, and E. Zitzler, editors,
Learning in Multiobjective Optimization (Dagstuhl Seminar 12041),
volume 2(1) of Dagstuhl Reports, pages 92–93. Schloss
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A. Auger and B. Doerr, editors.
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Anne Auger and Nikolaus Hansen.
A restart CMA evolution strategy with increasing population
size.
In Proceedings of the 2005 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 2005), pages 1769–1776. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, September 2005.
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Keywords: IPOPCMAES

[96]

Anne Auger and Nikolaus Hansen.
Performance evaluation of an advanced local search evolutionary
algorithm.
In Proceedings of the 2005 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
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Mustafa Avci and Seyda Topaloglu.
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Generalized Quadratic Multiple Knapsack Problem.
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Andreea Avramescu, Richard Allmendinger, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Managing Manufacturing and Delivery of Personalised Medicine:
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Andreea Avramescu, Richard Allmendinger, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
A MultiObjective MultiType Facility Location Problem for the
Delivery of Personalised Medicine.
In P. Castillo and J. L. Jiménez Laredo, editors,
Applications of Evolutionary Computation, volume 12694 of Lecture Notes
in Computer Science, pages 388–403. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2021.
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Advances in personalised medicine targeting specific
subpopulations and individuals pose a challenge to the
traditional pharmaceutical industry. With a higher level of
personalisation, an already critical supply chain is facing
additional demands added by the very sensitive nature of its
products. Nevertheless, studies concerned with the efficient
development and delivery of these products are scarce. Thus,
this paper presents the case of personalised medicine and the
challenges imposed by its mass delivery. We propose a
multiobjective mathematical model for the
locationallocation problem with two interdependent facility
types in the case of personalised medicine products. We show
its practical application through a cell and gene therapy
case study. A multiobjective genetic algorithm with a novel
population initialisation procedure is used as solution
method.
Keywords: Personalised medicine, Biopharmaceuticals Supply chain,
Facility locationallocation, Evolutionary multiobjective
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Dogan Aydin, Gürcan Yavuz, Serdar Özyön, Celal Yasar, and
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Artificial Bee Colony Framework to Nonconvex Economic Dispatch
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Towards Large Scale Automated Algorithm Design by Integrating
Modular Benchmarking Frameworks.
In F. Chicano and K. Krawiec, editors, Proceedings of the
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Ilya Loshchilov and T. Glasmachers.
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Anne Auger, Dimo Brockhoff, Nikolaus Hansen, Dejan Tusar, Tea Tušar, and
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Interface for Search Algorithms.
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Domagoj Babić.
Spear theorem prover.
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Domagoj Babić and Alan J. Hu.
Structural Abstraction of Software Verification Conditions.
In Computer Aided Verification: 19th International Conference,
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Domagoj Babić and Frank Hutter.
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François Bachoc, Céline Helbert, and Victor Picheny.
Gaussian process optimization with failures: Classification and
convergence proof.
Journal of Global Optimization, 2020.
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eprint ]
We consider the optimization of a computer model where each
simulation either fails or returns a valid output
performance. We first propose a new joint Gaussian process
model for classification of the inputs (computation failure
or success) and for regression of the performance
function. We provide results that allow for a computationally
efficient maximum likelihood estimation of the covariance
parameters, with a stochastic approximation of the likelihood
gradient. We then extend the classical improvement criterion
to our setting of joint classification and regression. We
provide an efficient computation procedure for the extended
criterion and its gradient. We prove the almost sure
convergence of the global optimization algorithm following
from this extended criterion. We also study the practical
performances of this algorithm, both on simulated data and on
a real computer model in the context of automotive fan
design.
Keywords: crashed simulation; latent gaussian process; automotive fan
design; industrial application; GP classification; Expected
Feasible Improvement with Gaussian Process Classification
with signs; EFI GPC sign

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Achim Bachem, Barthel Steckemetz, and Michael Wottawa.
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Hossein Baharmand, Tina Comes, and Matthieu Lauras.
Biobjective multilayer location– allocation model
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Locating distribution centers is critical for humanitarians
in the immediate aftermath of a suddenonset disaster. A
major challenge lies in balancing the complexity and
uncertainty of the problem with time and resource
constraints. To address this problem, we propose a
locationallocation model that divides the topography of
affected areas into multiple layers; considers constrained
number and capacity of facilities and fleets; and allows
decisionmakers to explore tradeoffs between response time
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Monya Baker.
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Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Incremental local search in ant colony optimization: Why it
fails for the quadratic assignment problem.
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Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, and Thomas Stützle.
Improvement Strategies for the FRace Algorithm: Sampling
Design and Iterative Refinement.
In T. BartzBeielstein, M. J. Blesa, C. Blum, B. Naujoks, A. Roli,
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[121]

Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Adaptive Sampling Size and Importance Sampling in
Estimationbased Local Search for the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman
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Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Estimationbased Metaheuristics for the Probabilistic Travelling
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Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Estimationbased Metaheuristics for the Single Vehicle Routing
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Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, Zhi Yuan, and Marco
Dorigo.
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Egon Balas and C. Martin.
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Egon Balas and M. W. Padberg.
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Egon Balas and Neil Simonetti.
Linear Time DynamicProgramming Algorithms for New Classes of
Restricted TSPs: A Computational Study.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 13(1):56–75, 2001.
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Consider the following restricted (symmetric or
asymmetric) travelingsalesman problem (TSP):
given an initial ordering of the n cities and an
integer k > 0, find a minimumcost
feasible tour, where a feasible tour is one in which
city i precedes city j whenever j >= i + k in the
initial ordering. Balas (1996) has proposed a
dynamicprogramming algorithm that solves this
problem in time linear in n, though exponential in
k. Some important realworld problems are amenable
to this model or some of its close relatives. The
algorithm of Balas (1996) constructs a layered
network with a layer of nodes for each position in
the tour, such that sourcesink paths in this
network are in onetoone correspondence with tours
that satisfy the postulated precedence
constraints. In this paper we discuss an
implementation of the dynamicprogramming algorithm
for the general case when the integer k is replaced
with cityspecific integers k(j), j = 1, . . .,
n. We discuss applications to, and computational
experience with, TSPs with time windows, a model
frequently used in vehicle routing as well as in
scheduling with setup, release and delivery
times. We also introduce a new model, the TSP with
target times, applicable to JustinTime
scheduling problems. Finally for TSPs that have no
precedence restrictions, we use the algorithm as a
heuristic that finds in linear time a local optimum
over an exponentialsize neighborhood. For this
case, we implement an iterated version of our
procedure, based on contracting some arcs of the
tour produced by a first application of the
algorithm, then reapplying the algorithm to the
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[130]

Egon Balas and A. Vazacopoulos.
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Steven C. Bankes.
Tools and techniques for developing policies for complex and
uncertain systems.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(suppl
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Agentbased models (ABM) are examples of complex adaptive
systems, which can be characterized as those systems for
which no model less complex than the system itself can
accurately predict in detail how the system will behave at
future times. Consequently, the standard tools of policy
analysis, based as they are on devising policies that perform
well on some best estimate model of the system, cannot be
reliably used for ABM. This paper argues that policy analysis
by using ABM requires an alternative approach to decision
theory. The general characteristics of such an approach are
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policy analysis.ABM, agentbased model

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P. Baptiste and L. K. Hguny.
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Thomas BartzBeielstein.
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Thomas BartzBeielstein.
How to Create Generalizable Results.
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Eduardo Batista de Moraes Barbosa, Edson Luiz Francça Senne, and
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Thomas BartzBeielstein, Carola Doerr, Daan van den Berg, Jakob Bossek, Sowmya
Chandrasekaran, Tome Eftimov, Andreas Fischbach, Pascal Kerschke, William La
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Boris Naujoks, Patryk Orzechowski, Vanessa Volz, Markus Wagner, and Thomas
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Thomas BartzBeielstein, Oliver Flasch, Patrick Koch, and Wolfgang Konen.
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Thomas BartzBeielstein, C. Lasarczyk, and Mike Preuss.
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Peer reviews are a unique governance tool that use expertise
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understudied topic in risk governance. Methodologies to
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nonacademic literature was conducted on city resilience peer
reviews. Thirtythree attributes of resilience are
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and practice can inform risk governance, and utilise peer
reviews, to drive meaningful change. Moreover, it situates
the challenges associated with resilience building tools
within risk governance to support the development of
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The goal of multiobjective optimization is to find
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
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http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2015001/, 2015.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
To DE or Not to DE? Multiobjective Differential Evolution
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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ComponentWise Designed MultiObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
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[224]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Automatic ComponentWise Design of MultiObjective Evolutionary
Algorithms.
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[225]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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A LargeScale Experimental Evaluation of HighPerforming Multi
and ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
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[226]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
A LargeScale Experimental Evaluation of HighPerforming Multi
and ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2017005, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, February 2017.
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[227]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
A LargeScale Experimental Evaluation of HighPerforming Multi
and ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
Evolutionary Computation, 26(4):621–656, 2018.
[ bib 
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supplementary material ]
Research on multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs)
has produced over the past decades a large number of
algorithms and a rich literature on performance assessment
tools to evaluate and compare them. Yet, newly proposed MOEAs
are typically compared against very few, often a decade older
MOEAs. One reason for this apparent contradiction is the lack
of a common baseline for comparison, with each subsequent
study often devising its own experimental scenario, slightly
different from other studies. As a result, the state of the
art in MOEAs is a disputed topic. This article reports a
systematic, comprehensive evaluation of a large number of
MOEAs that covers a wide range of experimental scenarios. A
novelty of this study is the separation between the
higherlevel algorithmic components related to
multiobjective optimization (MO), which characterize each
particular MOEA, and the underlying parameterssuch as
evolutionary operators, population size, etc.whose
configuration may be tuned for each scenario. Instead of
relying on a common or "default" parameter configuration that
may be lowperforming for particular MOEAs or scenarios and
unintentionally biased, we tune the parameters of each MOEA
for each scenario using automatic algorithm configuration
methods. Our results confirm some of the assumed knowledge in
the field, while at the same time they provide new insights
on the relative performance of MOEAs for manyobjective
problems. For example, under certain conditions,
indicatorbased MOEAs are more competitive for such problems
than previously assumed. We also analyze problemspecific
features affecting performance, the agreement between
performance metrics, and the improvement of tuned
configurations over the default configurations used in the
literature. Finally, the data produced is made publicly
available to motivate further analysis and a baseline for
future comparisons.

[228]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
An Empirical Assessment of the Properties of Inverted
Generational Distance Indicators on Multi and Manyobjective Optimization.
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Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 2017.
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[229]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
An empirical assessment of the properties of inverted
generational distance indicators on multi and manyobjective optimization:
Supplementary material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2016006/, 2016.
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[230]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatically Designing StateoftheArt Multi and
ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
Evolutionary Computation, 28(2):195–226, 2020.
[ bib 
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supplementary material ]
A recent comparison of wellestablished multiobjective
evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) has helped better identify
the current stateoftheart by considering (i) parameter
tuning through automatic configuration, (ii) a wide range of
different setups, and (iii) various performance
metrics. Here, we automatically devise MOEAs with verified
stateoftheart performance for multi and manyobjective
continuous optimization. Our work is based on two main
considerations. The first is that highperforming algorithms
can be obtained from a configurable algorithmic framework in
an automated way. The second is that multiple performance
metrics may be required to guide this automatic design
process. In the first part of this work, we extend our
previously proposed algorithmic framework, increasing the
number of MOEAs, underlying evolutionary algorithms, and
search paradigms that it comprises. These components can be
combined following a general MOEA template, and an automatic
configuration method is used to instantiate highperforming
MOEA designs that optimize a given performance metric and
present stateoftheart performance. In the second part, we
propose a multiobjective formulation for the automatic MOEA
design, which proves critical for the context of
manyobjective optimization due to the disagreement of
established performance metrics. Our proposed formulation
leads to an automatically designed MOEA that presents
stateoftheart performance according to a set of metrics,
rather than a single one.

[231]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatically Designing StateoftheArt Multi and
ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms: Supplementary material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2016004/, 2019.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Archiver Effects on the Performance of Stateoftheart Multi
and Manyobjective Evolutionary Algorithms: Supplementary material.
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[233]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Archiver Effects on the Performance of Stateoftheart Multi
and Manyobjective Evolutionary Algorithms: Supplementary material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2019004/, 2019.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
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Automatic Configuration of Multiobjective Optimizers and
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[ bib 
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Heuristic optimizers are an important tool in academia and industry, and their performanceoptimizing configuration requires a significant amount of expertise. As the proper configuration of algorithms is a crucial aspect in the engineering of heuristic algorithms, a significant research effort has been dedicated over the last years towards moving this step to the computer and, thus, make it automatic. These research efforts go way beyond tuning only numerical parameters of already fully defined algorithms, but exploit automatic configuration as a means for automatic algorithm design. In this chapter, we review two main aspects where the research on automatic configuration and multiobjective optimization intersect. The first is the automatic configuration of multiobjective optimizers, where we discuss means and specific approaches. In addition, we detail a case study that shows how these approaches can be used to design new, highperforming multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. The second aspect is the research on multiobjective configuration, that is, the possibility of using multiple performance metrics for the evaluation of algorithm configurations. We highlight some few examples in this direction.

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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra.
A componentwise approach to multiobjective evolutionary
algorithms: from flexible frameworks to automatic design.
PhD thesis, IRIDIA, École polytechnique, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2016.
[ bib ]
Supervised by Thomas Stützle and Manuel LópezIbáñez

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Leonora Bianchi, Mauro Birattari, M. Manfrin, M. Mastrolilli, Luís Paquete,
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Armin Biere.
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Surrogates.
In S. P. Singh and S. Markovitch, editors, Proceedings of the
AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. AAAI Press, February 2017.
[ bib 
http ]

[241]

André Biedenkapp, Joshua Marben, Marius Lindauer, and Frank Hutter.
Cave: Configuration assessment, visualization and evaluation.
In R. Battiti, M. Brunato, I. Kotsireas, and P. M. Pardalos, editors,
Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 12th International Conference,
LION 12, volume 11353 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
115–130, Cham, Switzerland, 2018. Springer.
[ bib ]

[242]

George Bilchev and Ian C. Parmee.
The Ant Colony Metaphor for Searching Continuous Design Spaces.
In T. C. Fogarty, editor, Evolutionary Computing, AISB
Workshop, volume 993 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
25–39. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1995.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[243]

M. Binois, D. Ginsbourger, and O. Roustant.
Quantifying uncertainty on Pareto fronts with Gaussian
process conditional simulations.
European Journal of Operational Research, 243(2):386–394,
2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Multiobjective optimization algorithms aim at finding
Paretooptimal solutions. Recovering Pareto fronts or Pareto
sets from a limited number of function evaluations are
challenging problems. A popular approach in the case of
expensivetoevaluate functions is to appeal to
metamodels. Kriging has been shown efficient as a base for
sequential multiobjective optimization, notably through
infill sampling criteria balancing exploitation and
exploration such as the Expected Hypervolume
Improvement. Here we consider Kriging metamodels not only for
selecting new points, but as a tool for estimating the whole
Pareto front and quantifying how much uncertainty remains on
it at any stage of Krigingbased multiobjective optimization
algorithms. Our approach relies on the Gaussian process
interpretation of Kriging, and bases upon conditional
simulations. Using concepts from random set theory, we
propose to adapt the Vorob'ev expectation and deviation to
capture the variability of the set of nondominated
points. Numerical experiments illustrate the potential of the
proposed workflow, and it is shown on examples how Gaussian
process simulations and the estimated Vorob'ev deviation can
be used to monitor the ability of Krigingbased
multiobjective optimization algorithms to accurately learn
the Pareto front.
Keywords: Attainment function, Expected Hypervolume Improvement,
Kriging, Multiobjective optimization, Vorob'ev expectation

[244]

Mauro Birattari, Prasanna Balaprakash, and Marco Dorigo.
The ACO/FRACE algorithm for combinatorial optimization under
uncertainty.
In K. F. Doerner, M. Gendreau, P. Greistorfer, W. J. Gutjahr, R. F.
Hartl, and M. Reimann, editors, Metaheuristics – Progress in Complex
Systems Optimization, volume 39 of Operations Research/Computer Science
Interfaces Series, pages 189–203. Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
[ bib ]

[245]

Mauro Birattari, Prasanna Balaprakash, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Estimation Based Local Search for Stochastic Combinatorial
Optimization.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(4):644–658, 2008.
[ bib ]

[246]

Mauro Birattari, Marco Chiarandini, Marco Saerens, and Thomas Stützle.
Learning Graphical Models for Algorithm Configuration.
In T. Berthold, A. M. Gleixner, S. Heinz, and T. Koch, editors,
Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Contraint Programming for
Combinatorial Optimization Problems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2011.
[ bib ]

[247]

Mauro Birattari, Gianni A. Di Caro, and Marco Dorigo.
Toward the formal foundation of Ant Programming.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Algorithms, Third
International Workshop, ANTS 2002, volume 2463 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 188–201. Springer, Heidelberg, 2002.
[ bib ]

[248]

Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper.
Natural language processing with Python: analyzing text with
the natural language toolkit.
O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2009.
[ bib ]

[249]

Mauro Birattari, Paola Pellegrini, and Marco Dorigo.
On the invariance of ant colony optimization.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 11(6):732–742,
2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[250]

Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, Luís Paquete, and Klaus Varrentrapp.
A Racing Algorithm for Configuring Metaheuristics.
In W. B. Langdon et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2002, pages 11–18. Morgan
Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 2002.
[ bib 
eprint ]
Keywords: Frace

[251]

Mauro Birattari, Zhi Yuan, Prasanna Balaprakash, and Thomas Stützle.
FRace and Iterated FRace: An Overview.
In T. BartzBeielstein, M. Chiarandini, L. Paquete, and M. Preuss,
editors, Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization
Algorithms, pages 311–336. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: Frace, iterated Frace, irace, tuning

[252]

Mauro Birattari, Zhi Yuan, Prasanna Balaprakash, and Thomas Stützle.
Parameter Adaptation in Ant Colony Optimization.
In M. Caserta and S. Voß, editors, Proceedings of MIC 2009,
the 8th Metaheuristics International Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2010.
University of Hamburg.
[ bib ]

[253]

Mauro Birattari, M. Zlochin, and Marco Dorigo.
Towards a theory of practice in metaheuristics design: A machine
learning perspective.
Theoretical Informatics and Applications, 40(2):353–369, 2006.
[ bib ]

[254]

Mauro Birattari.
Tuning Metaheuristics: A Machine Learning Perspective, volume
197 of Studies in Computational Intelligence.
Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[255]

Mauro Birattari.
The Problem of Tuning Metaheuristics as Seen from a Machine
Learning Perspective.
PhD thesis, IRIDIA, École polytechnique, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004.
[ bib ]
Supervised by Marco Dorigo

[256]

Francesco Biscani, Dario Izzo, and Chit Hong Yam.
A Global Optimisation Toolbox for Massively Parallel Engineering
Optimisation.
In Astrodynamics Tools and Techniques (ICATT 2010), 4th
International Conference on, 2010.
[ bib 
http ]
Keywords: PaGMO

[257]

Francesco Biscani, Dario Izzo, and Chit Hong Yam.
A Global Optimisation Toolbox for Massively Parallel Engineering
Optimisation.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1004.3824, 2010.
[ bib 
http ]
A software platform for global optimisation, called PaGMO,
has been developed within the Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) at
the European Space Agency, and was recently released as an
opensource project. PaGMO is built to tackle
highdimensional global optimisation problems, and it has
been successfully used to find solutions to reallife
engineering problems among which the preliminary design of
interplanetary spacecraft trajectories  both chemical
(including multiple flybys and deepspace maneuvers) and
lowthrust (limited, at the moment, to single phase
trajectories), the inverse design of nanostructured
radiators and the design of nonreactive controllers for
planetary rovers. Featuring an arsenal of global and local
optimisation algorithms (including genetic algorithms,
differential evolution, simulated annealing, particle swarm
optimisation, compass search, improved harmony search, and
various interfaces to libraries for local optimisation such
as SNOPT, IPOPT, GSL and NLopt), PaGMO is at its core a C++
library which employs an objectoriented architecture
providing a clean and easilyextensible optimisation
framework. Adoption of multithreaded programming ensures the
efficient exploitation of modern multicore architectures and
allows for a straightforward implementation of the island
model paradigm, in which multiple populations of candidate
solutions asynchronously exchange information in order to
speedup and improve the optimisation process. In addition to
the C++ interface, PaGMO's capabilities are exposed to the
highlevel language Python, so that it is possible to easily
use PaGMO in an interactive session and take advantage of the
numerous scientific Python libraries available.
Keywords: PaGMO

[258]

Bernd Bischl, Pascal Kerschke, Lars Kotthoff, Marius Thomas Lindauer, Yuri
Malitsky, Alexandre Fréchette, Holger H. Hoos, Frank Hutter, Kevin
LeytonBrown, Kevin Tierney, and Joaquin Vanschoren.
ASlib: A Benchmark Library for Algorithm Selection.
Artificial Intelligence, 237:41–58, 2016.
[ bib ]

[259]

Bernd Bischl, Michel Lang, Lars Kotthoff, Julia Schiffner, Jakob Richter, Erich
Studerus, Giuseppe Casalicchio, and Zachary M. Jones.
mlr: Machine Learning in R.
Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(170):1–5, 2016.
[ bib 
eprint ]

[260]

Bernd Bischl, Olaf Mersmann, Heike Trautmann, and Mike Preuss.
Algorithm Selection Based on Exploratory Landscape Analysis and
Costsensitive Learning.
In T. Soule and J. H. Moore, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic
and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2012, pages 313–320. ACM
Press, New York, NY, 2012.
[ bib ]
Keywords: continuous optimization, landscape analysis, algorithm selection

[261]

Christopher M. Bishop.
Pattern recognition and machine learning.
Springer, 2006.
[ bib ]

[262]

Erdem Biyik, Jonathan Margoliash, Shahrouz Ryan Alimo, and Dorsa
Sadigh.
Efficient and Safe Exploration in Deterministic Markov
Decision Processes with Unknown Transition Models.
In 2019 American Control Conference (ACC), pages 1792–1799.
IEEE, 2019.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[263]

Xavier Blasco, Juan M. Herrero, Javier Sanchis, and Manuel Martínez.
A new graphical visualization of ndimensional Pareto front
for decisionmaking in multiobjective optimization.
Information Sciences, 178(20):3908–3924, 2008.
[ bib ]

[264]

Craig Blackmore, Oliver Ray, and Kerstin Eder.
Automatically Tuning the GCC Compiler to Optimize the
Performance of Applications Running on Embedded Systems.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1703.08228, 2017.
[ bib 
http ]

[265]

María J. Blesa and Christian Blum.
Ant Colony Optimization for the Maximum EdgeDisjoint Paths
Problem.
In G. R. Raidl et al., editors, Applications of Evolutionary
Computing, Proceedings of EvoWorkshops 2004, volume 3005 of Lecture
Notes in Computer Science, pages 160–169. Springer, Heidelberg, 2004.
[ bib ]

[266]

María J. Blesa and Christian Blum.
Finding edgedisjoint paths in networks by means of artificial
ant colonies.
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms,
6(3):361–391, 2007.
[ bib ]

[267]

Aymeric Blot, Holger H. Hoos, Laetitia Jourdan, MarieEléonore
KessaciMarmion, and Heike Trautmann.
MOParamILS: A Multiobjective Automatic Algorithm
Configuration Framework.
In P. Festa, M. Sellmann, and J. Vanschoren, editors, Learning
and Intelligent Optimization, 10th International Conference, LION 10, volume
10079 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 32–47. Springer,
Cham, Switzerland, 2016.
[ bib ]

[268]

Aymeric Blot, Laetitia Jourdan, and MarieEléonore KessaciMarmion.
Automatic design of multiobjective local search algorithms:
case study on a biobjective permutation flowshop scheduling problem.
In P. A. N. Bosman, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2017, pages 227–234. ACM Press,
New York, NY, 2017.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[269]

Aymeric Blot, Manuel LópezIbáñez, MarieEléonore
KessaciMarmion, and Laetitia Jourdan.
New Initialisation Techniques for MultiObjective Local Search:
Application to the Biobjective Permutation Flowshop.
In A. Auger, C. M. Fonseca, N. Lourenço, P. Machado, L. Paquete,
and D. Whitley, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature  PPSN
XV, volume 11101 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 323–334.
Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2018.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[270]

Aymeric Blot, Alexis Pernet, Laetitia Jourdan, MarieEléonore
KessaciMarmion, and Holger H. Hoos.
Automatically Configuring Multiobjective Local Search Using
Multiobjective Optimisation.
In H. Trautmann, G. Rudolph, K. Klamroth, O. Schütze, M. M.
Wiecek, Y. Jin, and C. Grimme, editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion
Optimization, EMO 2017, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 61–76.
Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 2017.
[ bib ]

[271]

Christian Blum.
BeamACO—Hybridizing Ant Colony Optimization with Beam
Search: An Application to Open Shop Scheduling.
Computers & Operations Research, 32(6):1565–1591, 2005.
[ bib ]

[272]

Christian Blum.
BeamACO for simple assembly line balancing.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(4):618–627, 2008.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[273]

Christian Blum, J. Bautista, and J. Pereira.
BeamACO applied to assembly line balancing.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, 5th International Workshop, ANTS 2006, volume 4150 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 96–107. Springer, Heidelberg,
2006.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[274]

Christian Blum, María J. Blesa, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Beam Search for the Longest Common Subsequence Problem.
Technical Report LSI0829, Department LSI, Universitat
Politècnica de Catalunya, 2008.
Published in Computers & Operations
Research [275].
[ bib ]

[275]

Christian Blum, María J. Blesa, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Beam search for the longest common subsequence problem.
Computers & Operations Research, 36(12):3178–3186, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]
The longest common subsequence problem is a classical string
problem that concerns finding the common part of a set of
strings. It has several important applications, for example,
pattern recognition or computational biology. Most research
efforts up to now have focused on solving this problem
optimally. In comparison, only few works exist dealing with
heuristic approaches. In this work we present a deterministic
beam search algorithm. The results show that our algorithm
outperforms the current stateoftheart approaches not only
in solution quality but often also in computation time.

[276]

Christian Blum, Borja Calvo, and María J. Blesa.
FrogCOL and FrogMIS: New Decentralized Algorithms for
Finding Large Independent Sets in Graphs.
Swarm Intelligence, 9(23):205–227, 2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: irace

[277]

Christian Blum, Carlos Cotta, Antonio J. Fernández, and J. E. Gallardo.
A probabilistic beam search algorithm for the shortest common
supersequence problem.
In C. Cotta et al., editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2007 –
Seventh European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial
Optimisation, volume 4446 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
36–47. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
[ bib ]

[278]

Christian Blum and Marco Dorigo.
The hypercube framework for ant colony optimization.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part B,
34(2):1161–1172, 2004.
[ bib ]

[279]

Christian Blum and Marco Dorigo.
Search Bias in Ant Colony Optimization: On the Role of
CompetitionBalanced Systems.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 9(2):159–174,
2005.
[ bib ]

[280]

Christian Blum and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Ant Colony Optimization.
In The Industrial Electronics Handbook: Intelligent Systems.
CRC Press, 2nd edition, 2011.
[ bib 
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[281]

Christian Blum and M. Mastrolilli.
Using Branch & Bound Concepts in ConstructionBased
Metaheuristics: Exploiting the Dual Problem Knowledge.
In T. BartzBeielstein, M. J. Blesa, C. Blum, B. Naujoks, A. Roli,
G. Rudolph, and M. Sampels, editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics, volume 4771
of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 123–139. Springer,
Heidelberg, 2007.
[ bib ]

[282]

C. Blum and D. Merkle, editors.
Swarm Intelligence–Introduction and Applications.
Natural Computing Series. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2008.
[ bib ]

[283]

Christian Blum and Gabriela Ochoa.
A comparative analysis of two matheuristics by means of merged
local optima networks.
European Journal of Operational Research, 290(1):36–56, 2021.
[ bib ]

[284]

Christian Blum, Pedro Pinacho, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and José A.
Lozano.
Construct, Merge, Solve & Adapt: A New General Algorithm for
Combinatorial Optimization.
Computers & Operations Research, 68:75–88, 2016.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: irace

[285]

Christian Blum, Jakob Puchinger, Günther R. Raidl, and Andrea Roli.
Hybrid Metaheuristics in Combinatorial Optimization: A Survey.
Applied Soft Computing, 11(6):4135–4151, 2011.
[ bib ]

[286]

Christian Blum and Günther R. Raidl.
Hybrid Metaheuristics—Powerful Tools for Optimization.
Artificial Intelligence: Foundations, Theory, and Algorithms.
Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2016.
[ bib ]

[287]

Christian Blum and Andrea Roli.
Metaheuristics in Combinatorial Optimization: Overview and
Conceptual Comparison.
ACM Computing Surveys, 35(3):268–308, 2003.
[ bib ]

[288]

Christian Blum and Andrea Roli.
Hybrid metaheuristics: an introduction.
In C. Blum, M. J. Blesa, A. Roli, and M. Sampels, editors,
Hybrid Metaheuristics: An emergent approach for optimization, volume 114 of
Studies in Computational Intelligence, pages 1–30. Springer, Berlin,
Germany, 2008.
[ bib ]

[289]

Christian Blum and M. Sampels.
An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Shop Scheduling
Problems.
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms,
3(3):285–308, 2004.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[290]

Christian Blum and M. Yábar Vallès.
Multilevel ant colony optimization for DNA sequencing by
hybridization.
In F. Almeida et al., editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics, volume
4030 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 94–109. Springer,
Heidelberg, 2006.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[291]

Christian Blum, M. Yábar Vallès, and María J. Blesa.
An ant colony optimization algorithm for DNA sequencing by
hybridization.
Computers & Operations Research, 35(11):3620–3635, 2008.
[ bib ]

[292]

Andrea F. Bocchese, Chris Fawcett, Mauro Vallati, Alfonso E. Gerevini, and
Holger H. Hoos.
Performance robustness of AI planners in the 2014
International Planning Competition.
AI Communications, 31(6):445–463, December 2018.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Solver competitions have been used in many areas of AI to
assess the current state of the art and guide future research
and development. AI planning is no exception, and the
International Planning Competition (IPC) has been frequently
run for nearly two decades. Due to the organisational and
computational burden involved in running these competitions,
solvers are generally compared using a single homogeneous
hardware and software environment for all competitors. To
what extent does the specific choice of hardware and software
environment have an effect on solver performance, and is that
effect distributed equally across the competing solvers? In
this work, we use the competing planners and benchmark
instance sets from the 2014 IPC to investigate these two
questions. We recreate the 2014 IPC Optimal and Agile tracks
on two distinct hardware environments and eight distinct
software environments. We show that solver performance varies
significantly based on the hardware and software environment,
and that this variation is not equal for all
planners. Furthermore, the observed variation is sufficient
to change the competition rankings, including the topranked
planners for some tracks.

[293]

Kenneth D. Boese, Andrew B. Kahng, and Sudhakar Muddu.
A New Adaptive MultiStart Technique for Combinatorial Global
Optimization.
Operations Research Letters, 16(2):101–113, 1994.
[ bib ]
Keywords: bigvalley hypothesis, TSP, landscape analysis

[294]

K. D. Boese.
Models for Iterative Global Optimization.
PhD thesis, University of California, Computer Science Department,
Los Angeles, CA, 1996.
[ bib ]

[295]

Marko Bohanec.
Decision making: a computerscience and informationtechnology
viewpoint.
Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 7(2):22–37,
2009.
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[296]

Ihor O. Bohachevsky, Mark E. Johnson, and Myron L. Stein.
Generalized Simulated Annealing for Function Optimization.
Technometrics, 28(3):209–217, 1986.
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[297]

Béla Bollobás.
Random Graphs.
Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2nd edition, 2001.
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[298]

Grady Booch, James E. Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson.
The Unified Modeling Language User Guide.
AddisonWesley, 2nd edition, 2005.
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[299]

P. C. Borges and Michael Pilegaard Hansen.
A basis for future successes in multiobjective combinatorial
optimization.
Technical Report IMMREP19988, Institute of Mathematical Modelling,
Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 1998.
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[300]

P. C. Borges.
CHESS  Changing Horizon Efficient Set Search: A simple
principle for multiobjective optimization.
Journal of Heuristics, 6(3):405–418, 2000.
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[301]

Allan Borodin and Ran ElYaniv.
Online computation and competitive analysis.
Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1998.
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[302]

Endre Boros, Peter L. Hammer, and Gabriel Tavares.
Local search heuristics for Quadratic Unconstrained Binary
Optimization (QUBO).
Journal of Heuristics, 13(2):99–132, 2007.
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[303]

Michael Borenstein, Larry V. Hedges, Julian P. T. Higgins, and Hannah R.
Rothstein.
Introduction to MetaAnalysis.
Wiley, 2009.
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[304]

JeanCharles de Borda.
Mémoire sur les Élections au Scrutin.
Histoire de l'Académie Royal des Sciences, 1781.
[ bib ]
Keywords: ranking

[305]

Bernhard E. Boser, Isabelle Guyon, and Vladimir Vapnik.
A Training Algorithm for Optimal Margin Classifiers.
In D. Haussler, editor, COLT'92, pages 144–152. ACM Press,
1992.
[ bib 
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Proposed SVM

[306]

Hozefa M. Botee and Eric Bonabeau.
Evolving Ant Colony Optimization.
Advances in Complex Systems, 1:149–159, 1998.
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[307]

Marco Botte and Anita Schöbel.
Dominance for multiobjective robust optimization concepts.
European Journal of Operational Research, 273(2):430–440,
2019.
[ bib ]

[308]

Salim Bouamama, Christian Blum, and Abdellah Boukerram.
A Populationbased Iterated Greedy Algorithm for the Minimum
Weight Vertex Cover Problem.
Applied Soft Computing, 12(6):1632–1639, 2012.
[ bib ]

[309]

Géraldine Bous, Philippe Fortemps, François Glineur, and Marc Pirlot.
ACUTA: A novel method for eliciting additive value functions
on the basis of holistic preference statements.
European Journal of Operational Research, 206(2):435–444,
2010.
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[310]

K. Bouleimen and H. Lecocq.
A new efficient simulated annealing algorithm for the
resourceconstrained project scheduling problem and its multiple mode
version.
European Journal of Operational Research, 149(2):268–281,
2003.
[ bib 
DOI ]
This paper describes new simulated annealing (SA)
algorithms for the resourceconstrained project
scheduling problem (RCPSP) and its multiple mode
version (MRCPSP). The objective function
considered is minimisation of the makespan. The
conventional SA search scheme is replaced by a new
design that takes into account the specificity of
the solution space of project scheduling
problems. For RCPSP, the search was based on an
alternated activity and time incrementing process,
and all parameters were set after preliminary
statistical experiments done on test instances. For
MRCPSP, we introduced an original approach using
two embedded search loops alternating activity and
mode neighbourhood exploration. The performance
evaluation done on the benchmark instances available
in the literature proved the efficiency of both
adaptations that are currently among the most
competitive algorithms for these problems.
Keywords: multimode resourceconstrained project scheduling,
project scheduling, simulated annealing

[311]

Paul F. Boulos, Chun Hou Orr, Werner de Schaetzen, J. G. Chatila, Michael
Moore, Paul Hsiung, and Devan Thomas.
Optimal pump operation of water distribution systems using
genetic algorithms.
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[ bib ]

[312]

V. Bowman and Jr. Joseph.
On the Relationship of the Tchebycheff Norm and the Efficient
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[313]

George E. P. Box and Norman R. Draper.
Response surfaces, mixtures, and ridge analyses.
John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
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A. Brandt.
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L. Bradstreet, L. Barone, L. While, S. Huband, and P. Hingston.
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[ bib ]

[317]

Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Corrente, Salvatore Greco, Milosz Kadzinski,
Manuel LópezIbáñez, Vincent Mousseau, Mauro Munerato, and Roman
Slowiński.
BehaviorRealistic Artificial DecisionMakers to Test
PreferenceBased Multiobjective Optimization Method (Working Group
“Machine DecisionMaking”).
In S. Greco, K. Klamroth, J. D. Knowles, and G. Rudolph, editors,
Understanding Complexity in Multiobjective Optimization (Dagstuhl
Seminar 15031), volume 5(1) of Dagstuhl Reports, pages 110–116.
Schloss Dagstuhl–LeibnizZentrum für Informatik, Germany, 2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: multiple criteria decision making, evolutionary
multiobjective optimization

[318]

Yesnier Bravo, Javier Ferrer, Gabriel J. Luque, and Enrique Alba.
Smart Mobility by Optimizing the Traffic Lights: A New Tool for
Traffic Control Centers.
In E. Alba, F. Chicano, and G. J. Luque, editors, Smart Cities
(SmartCT 2016), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 147–156.
Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2016.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Urban traffic planning is a fertile area of Smart Cities to
improve efficiency, environmental care, and safety, since the
traffic jams and congestion are one of the biggest sources of
pollution and noise. Traffic lights play an important role in
solving these problems since they control the flow of the
vehicular network at the city. However, the increasing number
of vehicles makes necessary to go from a local control at one
single intersection to a holistic approach considering a
large urban area, only possible using advanced computational
resources and techniques. Here we propose HITUL, a system
that supports the decisions of the traffic control managers
in a large urban area. HITUL takes the real traffic
conditions and compute optimal traffic lights plans using
bioinspired techniques and microsimulations. We compare our
system against plans provided by experts. Our solutions not
only enable continuous traffic flows but reduce the
pollution. A case study of Málaga city allows us to
validate the approach and show its benefits for other cities
as well.
Keywords: Multiobjective optimization, Smart mobility, Traffic lights
planning

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Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Greco, Roman Slowiński, and P Zielniewicz.
Interactive evolutionary multiobjective optimization driven by
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S. C. Brailsford, Walter J. Gutjahr, M. S. Rauner, and W. Zeppelzauer.
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Jürgen Branke, T. Kaussler, and H. Schmeck.
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JeanPierre Brans and Bertrand Mareschal.
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JeanPierre Brans and Bertrand Mareschal.
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Jürgen Branke, S. Nguyen, C. W. Pickardt, and M. Zhang.
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Jürgen Branke, C. Schmidt, and H. Schmeck.
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Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Corrente, Salvatore Greco, Roman Slowiński,
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Using Choquet integral as preference model in interactive
evolutionary multiobjective optimization.
Technical report, WBS, University of Warwick, 2014.
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Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Corrente, Salvatore Greco, Roman Slowiński,
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evolutionary multiobjective optimization.
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Jürgen Branke and Jawad Elomari.
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computing budgets.
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Jürgen Branke and Jawad Elomari.
Racing with a Fixed Budget and a SelfAdaptive Significance
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Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Greco, Roman Slowiński, and Piotr
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Learning Value Functions in Interactive Evolutionary
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Yaochu Jin and Jürgen Branke.
Evolutionary Optimization in Uncertain Environments—A Survey.
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Mátyás Brendel and Marc Schoenauer.
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Leo Breiman.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich.
Approximating the Least Hypervolume Contributor: NPHard in
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich.
The Maximum Hypervolume Set Yields Nearoptimal Approximation.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich.
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Competitiveness.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich.
Don't be greedy when calculating hypervolume contributions.
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Dimo Brockhoff, Johannes Bader, Lothar Thiele, and Eckart Zitzler.
Directed Multiobjective Optimization Based on the Weighted
Hypervolume Indicator.
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[ bib 
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Recently, there has been a large interest in setbased
evolutionary algorithms for multi objective
optimization. They are based on the definition of indicators
that characterize the quality of the current population while
being compliant with the concept of Paretooptimality. It has
been shown that the hypervolume indicator, which measures the
dominated volume in the objective space, enables the design
of efficient search algorithms and, at the same time, opens
up opportunities to express user preferences in the search by
means of weight functions. The present paper contains the
necessary theoretical foundations and corresponding
algorithms to (i) select appropriate weight functions, to
(ii) transform user preferences into weight functions and to
(iii) efficiently evaluate the weighted hypervolume indicator
through Monte Carlo sampling. The algorithm WHypE, which
implements the previous concepts, is introduced, and the
effectiveness of the search, directed towards the user's
preferred solutions, is shown using an extensive set of
experiments including the necessary statistical performance
assessment.
Keywords: hypervolume, preferencebased search, multi objective
optimization, evolutionary algorithm

[345]

Dimo Brockhoff, Roberto Calandra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Frank
Neumann, and Selvakumar Ulaganathan.
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Eric Brochu, Vlad Cora, and Nando de Freitas.
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[ bib 
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Development and deployment of interactive evolutionary
multiobjective optimization algorithms (EMOAs) have recently
gained broad interest. In this study, first steps towards a
theory of interactive EMOAs are made by deriving bounds on
the expected number of function evaluations and queries to a
decision maker. We analyze randomized local search and the
(1+1)EA on the biobjective problems LOTZ and COCZ under the
scenario that the decision maker interacts with these
algorithms by providing a subjective preference whenever
solutions are incomparable. It is assumed that this decision
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A wellstudied approach to the design of voting rules views
them as maximum likelihood estimators; given votes that are
seen as noisy estimates of a true ranking of the
alternatives, the rule must reconstruct the most likely true
ranking. We argue that this is too stringent a requirement,
and instead ask: How many votes does a voting rule need to
reconstruct the true ranking? We define the family of
pairwisemajority consistent rules, and show that for all
rules in this family the number of samples required from the
Mallows noise model is logarithmic in the number of
alternatives, and that no rule can do asymptotically better
(while some rules like plurality do much worse). Taking a
more normative point of view, we consider voting rules that
surely return the true ranking as the number of samples tends
to infinity (we call this property accuracy in the limit);
this allows us to move to a higher level of abstraction. We
study families of noise models that are parametrized by
distance functions, and find voting rules that are accurate
in the limit for all noise models in such general
families. We characterize the distance functions that induce
noise models for which pairwisemajority consistent rules are
accurate in the limit, and provide a similar result for
another novel family of positiondominance consistent
rules. These characterizations capture three wellknown
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The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we introduce a
novel general estimation of distribution algorithm to deal
with permutationbased optimization problems. The algorithm
is based on the use of a probabilistic model for permutations
called the generalized Mallows model. In order to prove the
potential of the proposed algorithm, our second aim is to
solve the permutation flowshop scheduling problem. A hybrid
approach consisting of the new estimation of distribution
algorithm and a variable neighborhood search is
proposed. Conducted experiments demonstrate that the proposed
algorithm is able to outperform the stateoftheart
approaches. Moreover, from the 220 benchmark instances
tested, the proposed hybrid approach obtains new best known
results in 152 cases. An indepth study of the results
suggests that the successful performance of the introduced
approach is due to the ability of the generalized Mallows
estimation of distribution algorithm to discover promising
regions in the search space.
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model,Permutation flowshop scheduling
problem,Permutationsbased optimization problems

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Several methods based on Kriging have recently been proposed
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solely its volume—and quantifying uncertainties on it are
not straightforward. Here we use notions from random set
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Evolutionary algorithms are widely used for solving
multiobjective optimization problems but are often criticized
because of a large number of function evaluations
needed. Approximations, especially function approximations,
also referred to as surrogates or metamodels are commonly
used in the literature to reduce the computation time. This
paper presents a survey of 45 different recent algorithms
proposed in the literature between 2008 and 2016 to handle
computationally expensive multiobjective optimization
problems. Several algorithms are discussed based on what kind
of an approximation such as problem, function or fitness
approximation they use. Most emphasis is given to function
approximationbased algorithms. We also compare these
algorithms based on different criteria such as metamodeling
technique and evolutionary algorithm used, type and
dimensions of the problem solved, handling constraints,
training time and the type of evolution control. Furthermore,
we identify and discuss some promising elements and major
issues among algorithms in the literature related to using an
approximation and numerical settings used. In addition, we
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Christian Cintrano, Javier Ferrer, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Enrique
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[ bib 
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In many realworld optimization problems, like the traffic
light scheduling problem tackled here, the evaluation of
candidate solu tions requires the simulation of a process
under various scenarios. Thus, good solutions should not only
achieve good objective function values, but they must be
robust (low variance) across all different scenarios.
Previous work has revealed the effectiveness of IRACE for
this task. However, the operators used by IRACE to generate
new solutions were designed for configuring algorithmic
parameters, that have various data types (categorical,
numerical, etc.). Meanwhile, evolutionary algorithms have
powerful operators for numerical optimization, which could
help to sample new solutions from the best ones found in the
search. Therefore, in this work, we propose a hybridization
of the elitist iterated racing mechanism of IRACE with
evolutionary operators from differential evo lution and
genetic algorithms. We consider a realistic case study
derived from the traffic network of Malaga (Spain) with 275
traffic lights that should be scheduled optimally. After a
meticulous study, we discovered that the hybrid algorithm
comprising IRACE plus differential evolution offers
statistically better results than conventional algorithms and
also improves travel times and reduces pollution.
Keywords: Hybrid algorithms, Evolutionary algorithms, Simulation
optimization, Uncertainty, Traffic light planning

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[526]

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Kalyanmoy Deb.
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[528]

Kalyanmoy Deb, A. Pratap, S. Agarwal, and T. Meyarivan.
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[529]

Kalyanmoy Deb.
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Naive definition of PLOset

[530]

Kalyanmoy Deb.
Introduction to evolutionary multiobjective optimization.
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In its current state, evolutionary multiobjective
optimization (EMO) is an established field of research and
application with more than 150 PhD theses, more than ten
dedicated texts and edited books, commercial softwares and
numerous freely downloadable codes, a biannual conference
series running successfully since 2001, special sessions and
workshops held at all major evolutionary computing
conferences, and fulltime researchers from universities and
industries from all around the globe. In this chapter, we
provide a brief introduction to EMO principles, illustrate
some EMO algorithms with simulated results, and outline the
current research and application potential of EMO. For
solving multiobjective optimization problems, EMO procedures
attempt to find a set of welldistributed Paretooptimal
points, so that an idea of the extent and shape of the
Paretooptimal front can be obtained. Although this task was
the early motivation of EMO research, EMO principles are now
being found to be useful in various other problem solving
tasks, enabling one to treat problems naturally as they
are. One of the major current research thrusts is to combine
EMO procedures with other multiple criterion decision making
(MCDM) tools so as to develop hybrid and interactive
multiobjective optimization algorithms for finding a set of
tradeoff optimal solutions and then choose a preferred
solution for implementation. This chapter provides the
background of EMO principles and their potential to launch
such collaborative studies with MCDM researchers in the
coming years.

[531]

Kalyanmoy Deb.
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[532]

Kalyanmoy Deb.
MultiObjective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms.
Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001.
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[533]

Kalyanmoy Deb and S. Agrawal.
A NichedPenalty Approach for Constraint Handling in Genetic
Algorithms.
In A. Dobnikar, N. C. Steele, D. W. Pearson, and R. F. Albrecht,
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DOI ]
Keywords: polynomial mutation

[534]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Ram Bhushan Agrawal.
Simulated binary crossover for continuous search spaces.
Complex Systems, 9(2):115–148, 1995.
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eprint ]
Keywords: SBX

[535]

Kalyanmoy Deb, S. Agarwal, A. Pratap, and T. Meyarivan.
A fast elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for
multiobjective optimization: NSGAII.
In M. Schoenauer et al., editors, Parallel Problem Solving from
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[536]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Debayan Deb.
Analysing mutation schemes for realparameter genetic
algorithms.
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Soft
Computing, 4(1):1–28, 2014.
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[537]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Sachin Jain.
MultiSpeed Gearbox Design Using MultiObjective Evolutionary
Algorithms.
Technical Report 2002001, KanGAL, February 2002.
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[538]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Sachin Jain.
An Evolutionary ManyObjective Optimization Algorithm Using
ReferencePointBased Nondominated Sorting Approach, Part I: Solving
Problems With Box Constraints.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 18(4):577–601,
2014.
[ bib ]
Proposed NSGAIII

[539]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Murat Köksalan.
Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Preferencebased
Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 14(5):669–670,
October 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[540]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Christie Myburgh.
Breaking the billionvariable barrier in realworld optimization
using a customized evolutionary algorithm.
In T. Friedrich, F. Neumann, and A. M. Sutton, editors,
Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO
2016, pages 653–660. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2016.
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[541]

Kalyanmoy Deb and Ankur Sinha.
Solving Bilevel MultiObjective Optimization Problems Using
Evolutionary Algorithms.
In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.K. Hao, and
M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO
2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
110–124. Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib ]

[542]

Kalyanmoy Deb and J. Sundar.
Reference point based multiobjective optimization using
evolutionary algorithms.
In M. Cattolico et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2006, pages 635–642. ACM Press,
New York, NY, 2006.
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DOI ]

[543]

Kalyanmoy Deb, Rahul Tewari, Mayur Dixit, and Joydeep Dutta.
Finding tradeoff solutions close to KKT points using
evolutionary multiobjective optimization.
In Proceedings of the 2007 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 2007), pages 2109–2116. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2007.
[ bib ]

[544]

Kalyanmoy Deb, Lothar Thiele, Marco Laumanns, and Eckart Zitzler.
Scalable Test Problems for Evolutionary MultiObjective
Optimization.
Technical Report 112, Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory
(TIK), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland,
2001.
Do not cite this TR! It is incorrect and it is superseeded
by [545].
[ bib ]
Keywords: DTLZ benchmark

[545]

Kalyanmoy Deb, Lothar Thiele, Marco Laumanns, and Eckart Zitzler.
Scalable Test Problems for Evolutionary Multiobjective
Optimization.
In A. Abraham, L. Jain, and R. Goldberg, editors, Evolutionary
Multiobjective Optimization, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing,
pages 105–145. Springer, London, UK, January 2005.
[ bib ]
Keywords: DTLZ benchmark

[546]

Kalyanmoy Deb, Ling Zhu, and Sandeep Kulkarni.
Handling Multiple Scenarios in Evolutionary MultiObjective
Numerical Optimization.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 22(6):920–933,
2018.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Solutions to most practical numerical optimization problems
must be evaluated for their performance over a number of
different loading or operating conditions, which we refer
here as scenarios. Therefore, a meaningful and resilient
optimal solution must be such that it remains feasible under
all scenarios and performs close to an individual optimal
solution corresponding to each scenario. Despite its
practical importance, multiscenario consideration has
received a lukewarm attention, particularly in the context of
multiobjective optimization. The usual practice is to
optimize for the worstcase scenario. In this paper, we
review existing methodologies in this direction and set our
goal to suggest a new and potential populationbased method
for handling multiple scenarios by defining scenariowise
domination principle and scenariowise diversitypreserving
operators. To evaluate, the proposed method is applied to a
number of numerical test problems and engineering design
problems with a detail explanation of the obtained results
and compared with an existing method. This first systematic
evolutionary based multiscenario, multiobjective,
optimization study on numerical problems indicates that
multiple scenarios can be handled in an integrated manner
using an EMO framework to find a wellbalanced compromise set
of solutions to multiple scenarios and maintain a tradeoff
among multiple objectives. In comparison to an existing
serial multiple optimization approach, the proposed approach
finds a set of compromised tradeoff solutions
simultaneously. An achievement of multiobjective tradeoff
and multiscenario tradeoff is algorithmically challenging,
but due to its practical appeal, further research and
application must be spent.
Keywords: scenariobased

[547]

Annelies De Corte and Kenneth Sörensen.
Optimisation of gravityfed water distribution network design: A
critical review.
European Journal of Operational Research, 228(1):1–10, 2013.
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Annelies De Corte and Kenneth Sörensen.
An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for Water Distribution
Network Design Optimization.
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Annelies De Corte and Kenneth Sörensen.
An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for multiperiod water
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biobjective set packing problem.
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2010.
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This paper cannot be found on internet!! Does it exist?

[553]

Federico Della Croce, Thierry Garaix, and Andrea Grosso.
Iterated Local Search and Very Large Neighborhoods for the
Parallelmachines Total Tardiness Problem.
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[554]

Maxence Delorme, Manuel Iori, and Silvano Martello.
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exact algorithms.
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Mauro Dell'Amico, Manuel Iori, Silvano Martello, and Michele Monaci.
Heuristic and Exact Algorithms for the Identical Parallel
Machine Scheduling Problem.
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Maxence Delorme, Manuel Iori, and Silvano Martello.
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[557]

Mauro Dell'Amico, Manuel Iori, Stefano Novellani, and Thomas Stützle.
A destroy and repair algorithm for the Bike sharing Rebalancing
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Keywords: irace

[558]

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Joaquín Derrac, Salvador García, Daniel Molina, and Francisco Herrera.
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[566]

Ulrich Derigs and Ulrich Vogel.
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[567]

Marcelo De Souza and Marcus Ritt.
An Automatically Designed Recombination Heuristic for the
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[568]

Marcelo De Souza and Marcus Ritt.
Automatic GrammarBased Design of Heuristic Algorithms for
Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming.
In A. Liefooghe and M. LópezIbáñez, editors,
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[569]

Marcelo De Souza and Marcus Ritt.
Hybrid Heuristic for Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming
– Source Code of HHBQP.
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[570]

Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Leslie
Pérez Cáceres.
ACVIZ: A Tool for the Visual Analysis of the
Configuration of Algorithms with irace – Source Code.
https://github.com/souzamarcelo/acviz, 2020.
[ bib ]

[571]

Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Leslie
Pérez Cáceres.
ACVIZ: Algorithm Configuration
Visualizations for irace: Supplementary material.
http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4714582, September 2020.
[ bib ]

[572]

Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Leslie
Pérez Cáceres.
ACVIZ: A Tool for the Visual Analysis of the
Configuration of Algorithms with irace.
Operations Research Perspectives, 8:100186, 2021.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]
This paper introduces acviz, a tool that helps to analyze the
automatic configuration of algorithms with irace. It provides
a visual representation of the configuration process,
allowing users to extract useful information, e.g. how the
configurations evolve over time. When test data is available,
acviz also shows the performance of each configuration on the
test instances. Using this visualization, users can analyze
and compare the quality of the resulting configurations and
observe the performance differences on training and test
instances.

[573]

Paolo Detti, Francesco Papalini, and Garazi Zabalo Manrique de Lara.
A multidepot dialaride problem with heterogeneous vehicles
and compatibility constraints in healthcare.
Omega, 70:1–14, 2017.
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DOI ]

[574]

Sven De Vries and Rakesh V. Vohra.
Combinatorial Auctions: A Survey.
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[ bib ]

[575]

Sophie Dewez.
On the toll setting problem.
PhD thesis, Faculté de Sciences, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, 2014.
[ bib ]
Supervised by Dr. Martine Labbé

[576]

Juan Esteban Diaz, Julia Handl, and DongLing Xu.
Evolutionary robust optimization in production planning:
interactions between number of objectives, sample size and choice of
robustness measure.
Computers & Operations Research, 79:266–278, 2017.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: Evolutionary multiobjective optimization, Production
planning, Robust optimization, Simulationbased optimization,
Uncertainty modelling

[577]

Juan Esteban Diaz, Julia Handl, and DongLing Xu.
Integrating metaheuristics, simulation and exact techniques for
production planning of a failureprone manufacturing system.
European Journal of Operational Research, 266(3):976–989,
2018.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Combinatorial optimization, Production
planning, Simulationbased optimization, Uncertainty
modelling

[578]

Juan Esteban Diaz and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Incorporating DecisionMaker's Preferences into the Automatic
Configuration of BiObjective Optimisation Algorithms.
European Journal of Operational Research, 289(3):1209–1222,
2021.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]
Automatic configuration (AC) methods are increasingly used to
tune and design optimisation algorithms for problems with
multiple objectives. Most AC methods use unary quality
indicators, which assign a single scalar value to an
approximation to the Pareto front, to compare the performance
of different optimisers. These quality indicators, however,
imply preferences beyond Paretooptimality that may differ
from those of the decision maker (DM). Although it is
possible to incorporate DM's preferences into quality
indicators, e.g., by means of the weighted hypervolume
indicator (HV^{w}), expressing preferences in terms of weight
function is not always intuitive nor an easy task for a DM,
in particular, when comparing the stochastic outcomes of
several algorithm configurations. A more visual approach to
compare such outcomes is the visualisation of their empirical
attainment functions (EAFs) differences. This paper proposes
using such visualisations as a way of eliciting information
about regions of the objective space that are preferred by
the DM. We present a method to convert the information about
EAF differences into a HV^{w} that will assign higher quality
values to approximation fronts that result in EAF differences
preferred by the DM. We show that the resulting HV^{w} may be
used by an AC method to guide the configuration of
multiobjective optimisers according to the preferences of
the DM. We evaluate the proposed approach on a wellknown
benchmark problem. Finally, we apply our approach to
reconfiguring, according to different DM's preferences, a
multiobjective optimiser tackling a realworld production
planning problem arising in the manufacturing industry.

[579]

L. C. Dias, Vincent Mousseau, José Rui Figueira, and J. N. Clímaco.
An aggregation/disaggregation approach to obtain robust
conclusions with ELECTRE TRI.
European Journal of Operational Research, 138(2):332–348,
April 2002.
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[580]

Gianni A. Di Caro and Marco Dorigo.
AntNet: Distributed Stigmergetic Control for Communications
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promising approach to automate the tuning process without
risking system failures during the optimization
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20th IFAC World Congress
Keywords: Adaptive Control, Constrained Bayesian Optimization, Safety,
Gaussian Process, Particle Swarm Optimization, Policy Search,
Reinforcement learning

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Many realworld optimization problems can be
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conflicting objectives. Despite progress in solving
multiobjective combinatorial optimization problems
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the years, significantly fewer positive results than Asian
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The attainment function has been proposed as a
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quality of individual nondominated solutions in
objective space and their spread along the tradeoff
surface. It has also been related to results from
random closedset theory, and cast as a meanlike,
firstorder moment measure of the outcomes of
multiobjective optimisers. In this work, the use of
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optimiser performance is explored experimentally,
with emphasis on the interpretability of the
results.

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This paper presents a recursive, dimensionsweep
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the quality of a set of n nondominated points in
d>2 dimensions. It improves upon the existing HSO
(Hypervolume by Slicing Objectives) algorithm by
pruning the recursion tree to avoid repeated
dominance checks and the recalculation of partial
hypervolumes. Additionally, it incorporates a recent
result for the threedimensional special case. The
proposed algorithm achieves O(n^{d2} logn) time
and linear space complexity in the worstcase, but
experimental results show that the pruning
techniques used may reduce the time complexity
exponent even further.

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Jorge Ramón Fonseca Cacho and Kazem Taghva.
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Reproducible research is the cornerstone of cumulative
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ongoing reproducible research crisis along with
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Exploration of Metaheuristics through Automatic Algorithm
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Alberto Franzin and Thomas Stützle.
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Tobias Friedrich, Andreas Göbel, Francesco Quinzan, and Markus Wagner.
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A core feature of evolutionary algorithms is their mutation
operator. Recently, much attention has been devoted to the
study of mutation operators with dynamic and nonuniform
mutation rates. Following up on this line of work, we propose
a new mutation operator and analyze its performance on the
(1+1) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA). Our analyses show that
this mutation operator competes with preexisting ones, when
used by the (1+1)EA on classes of problems for which
results on the other mutation operators are available. We
present a “jump” function for which the performance of the
(1+1)EA using any static uniform mutation and any restart
strategy can be worse than the performance of the (1+1)EA
using our mutation operator with no restarts. We show that
the (1+1)EA using our mutation operator finds a
(1/3)approximation ratio on any nonnegative submodular
function in polynomial time. This performance matches that of
combinatorial local search algorithms specifically designed
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Matteo Frigo and Steven G. Johnson.
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Satisfiability testing (SAT) is a very active area
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applications. We describe CLASS2.0, a genetic
programming system for semiautomatically designing
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comparison shows that that the heuristics generated
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The development of successful metaheuristic
algorithms such as local search for a difficult
problem such as satisfiability testing (SAT) is a
challenging task. We investigate an evolutionary
approach to automating the discovery of new local
search heuristics for SAT. We show that several
wellknown SAT local search algorithms such as
Walksat and Novelty are composite heuristics that
are derived from novel combinations of a set of
building blocks. Based on this observation, we
developed CLASS, a genetic programming system that
uses a simple composition operator to automatically
discover SAT local search heuristics. New
heuristics discovered by CLASS are shown to be
competitive with the best Walksat variants,
including Novelty+. Evolutionary algorithms have
previously been applied to directly evolve a
solution for a particular SAT instance. We show
that the heuristics discovered by CLASS are also
competitive with these previous, direct evolutionary
approaches for SAT. We also analyze the local
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D. Gaertner and K. Clark.
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Algorithm selection is typically based on models of
algorithm performance,learned during a separate
offline training sequence, which can be
prohibitively expensive. In recent work, we adopted
an online approach, in which models of the runtime
distributions of the available algorithms are
iteratively updated and used to guide the allocation
of computational resources, while solving a sequence
of problem instances. The models are estimated using
survival analysis techniques, which allow us to
reduce computation time, censoring the runtimes of
the slower algorithms. Here, we review the
statistical aspects of our online selection method,
discussing the bias induced in the runtime
distributions (RTD) models by the competition of
different algorithms on the same problem instances.

[823]

Caroline Gagné, W. L. Price, and M. Gravel.
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Special Issue on Multiple Objective Metaheuristics.
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Xavier Gandibleux, N. Mezdaoui, and A. Fréville.
A tabu search procedure to solve multiobjective combinatorial
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Xavier Gandibleux, H. Morita, and N. Katoh.
Use of a genetic heritage for solving the assignment problem
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[834]

Kaizhou Gao, Yicheng Zhang, Ali Sadollah, and Rong Su.
Optimizing urban traffic light scheduling problem using harmony
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[835]

Huiru Gao, Haifeng Nie, and Ke Li.
Visualisation of Pareto Front Approximation: A Short Survey
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[836]

Huiru Gao, Haifeng Nie, and Ke Li.
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[838]

Carlos GarcíaMartínez, Oscar Cordón, and Francisco Herrera.
A taxonomy and an empirical analysis of multiple objective ant
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Deon Garrett and Dipankar Dasgupta.
Multiobjective landscape analysis and the generalized assignment
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Salvador García, Alberto Fernández, Julián Luengo, and Francisco
Herrera.
Advanced nonparametric tests for multiple comparisons in the
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The customer order scheduling problem (COSP) is defined as
to determine the sequence of tasks to satisfy the demand of
customers who order several types of products produced on a
single machine. A setup is required whenever a product type
is launched. The objective of the scheduling problem is to
minimize the average customer order flow time. Since the
customer order scheduling problem is known to be strongly
NPhard, we solve it using four major metaheuristics and
compare the performance of these heuristics, namely,
simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search, and ant
colony optimization. These are selected to represent various
characteristics of metaheuristics: natureinspired
vs. artificially created, populationbased vs. local search,
etc. A set of problems is generated to compare the solution
quality and computational efforts of these heuristics.
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satisfaction, Boolean satisfiability, and the travelling
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technique are more difficult than the ones found in popular
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Holger H. Hoos.
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Holger H. Hoos.
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Holger H. Hoos.
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Wenbin Hu, Liping Yan, Huan Wang, Bo Du, and Dacheng Tao.
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Maura Hunt and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
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from computational rationality. Specifically, this paper
improves the simulation of a human decisionmaker (DM) by
considering how resource constraints impact their evaluation
process in an interactive Goal Programming problem. Our
analysis confirms and emphasizes a previous simulation study
by showing key areas that could be effected by cognitive
mechanisms. While the results are promising, the effects
should be validated by future experiments with human DMs.

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M. Hurtgen and J.C. Maun.
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and OR Techniques in Constraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization
Problems, 7th International Conference, CPAIOR 2010, volume 6140 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 186–202. Springer, Heidelberg,
2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1039]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
Tradeoffs in the Empirical Evaluation of Competing Algorithm
Designs.
Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence,
60(1–2):65–89, 2010.
[ bib ]

[1040]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
Sequential ModelBased Optimization for General Algorithm
Configuration.
In C. A. Coello Coello, editor, Learning and Intelligent
Optimization, 5th International Conference, LION 5, volume 6683 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 507–523. Springer, Heidelberg,
2011.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: SMAC,ROAR

[1041]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
Parallel Algorithm Configuration.
In Y. Hamadi and M. Schoenauer, editors, Learning and
Intelligent Optimization, 6th International Conference, LION 6, volume 7219
of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 55–70. Springer,
Heidelberg, 2012.
[ bib ]

[1042]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
Bayesian Optimization With Censored Response Data.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1310.1947, 2013.
[ bib 
http ]

[1043]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
Identifying Key Algorithm Parameters and Instance Features using
Forward Selection.
In P. M. Pardalos and G. Nicosia, editors, Learning and
Intelligent Optimization, 7th International Conference, LION 7, volume 7997
of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 364–381. Springer,
Heidelberg, 2013.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: parameter importance

[1044]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
An Efficient Approach for Assessing Hyperparameter Importance.
In E. P. Xing and T. Jebara, editors, Proceedings of the 31st
International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2014, volume 32, pages
754–762, 2014.
[ bib 
http ]
Keywords: fANOVA, parameter importance

[1045]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, Kevin LeytonBrown, and Kevin Murphy.
TimeBounded Sequential Parameter Optimization.
In C. Blum and R. Battiti, editors, Learning and Intelligent
Optimization, 4th International Conference, LION 4, volume 6073 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 281–298. Springer, Heidelberg,
2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1046]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, Kevin LeytonBrown, and Thomas Stützle.
ParamILS: An Automatic Algorithm
Configuration Framework.
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 36:267–306,
October 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1047]

Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Algorithm Configuration Based on Local Search.
In R. C. Holte and A. Howe, editors, Proceedings of the AAAI
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 1152–1157. AAAI Press/
MIT Press, Menlo Park, CA, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1048]

Frank Hutter, Marius Thomas Lindauer, Adrian Balint, Sam Bayless, Holger H.
Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
The Configurable SAT Solver Challenge (CSSC).
Artificial Intelligence, 243:1–25, 2017.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1049]

Frank Hutter, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Chris Fawcett, Marius Thomas
Lindauer, Holger H. Hoos, Kevin LeytonBrown, and Thomas Stützle.
AClib: A Benchmark Library for Algorithm Configuration.
In P. M. Pardalos, M. G. C. Resende, C. Vogiatzis, and J. L.
Walteros, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 8th
International Conference, LION 8, volume 8426 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 36–40. Springer, Heidelberg, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1050]

Frank Hutter, Lin Xu, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin LeytonBrown.
Algorithm runtime prediction: Methods & evaluation.
Artificial Intelligence, 206:79–111, 2014.
[ bib ]

[1051]

Frank Hutter.
SAT benchmarks used in automated algorithm configuration.
http://www.cs.ubc.ca/labs/beta/Projects/AAC/SATbenchmarks.html, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1052]

Frank Hutter.
Automated Configuration of Algorithms for Solving Hard
Computational Problems.
PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, Department of Computer
Science, Vancouver, Canada, October 2009.
[ bib ]

[1053]

Zhiyuan Liu and Jian Tang.
IJCAI 2021 Reproducibility Guidelines, 35th International Joint
Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
https://ijcai21.org/wpcontent/uploads/2020/12/20201226IJCAIReproducibility.pdf,
2021.
[ bib ]

[1054]

Jérémie Humeau, Arnaud Liefooghe, ElGhazali Talbi, and Sébastien
Verel.
ParadisEOMO: From Fitness Landscape Analysis to Efficient
Local Search Algorithms.
Rapport de recherche RR7871, INRIA, France, 2012.
[ bib 
eprint ]

[1055]

Mauro Birattari.
The race Package for R: Racing Methods
for the Selection of the Best.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2003037, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2003.
[ bib ]

[1056]

Mauro Birattari.
On the Estimation of the Expected Performance of a Metaheuristic
on a Class of Instances. How Many Instances, How Many Runs?
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2004001, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004.
[ bib ]

[1057]

Krzysztof Socha and Marco Dorigo.
Ant Colony Optimization for MixedVariable Optimization
Problems.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2007019, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, October 2007.
[ bib ]

[1058]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle.
Exploratory Analysis of Stochastic Local Search Algorithms in
Biobjective Optimization.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2009015, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, May 2009.
Published as a book chapter [1401].
[ bib ]

[1059]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
An Analysis of Algorithmic Components for Multiobjective Ant
Colony Optimization: A Case Study on the Biobjective TSP.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2009019, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, June 2009.
Published in the proceedings of Evolution Artificielle,
2009 [1411].
[ bib ]

[1060]

Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Effective Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms for
Biobjective Permutation Flowshop Scheduling.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2009020, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, June 2009.
Published in the proceedings of Hybrid Metaheuristics
2009 [640].
[ bib 
http ]

[1061]

Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Adaptive “Anytime” TwoPhase Local Search.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2009026, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2010.
Published in the proceedings of LION 4 [643].
[ bib 
http ]

[1062]

Thomas Stützle, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Paola Pellegrini, Michael
Maur, Marco A. Montes de Oca, Mauro Birattari, and Marco Dorigo.
Parameter Adaptation in Ant Colony Optimization.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2010002, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, January 2010.
Published as a book chapter [2058].
[ bib ]

[1063]

Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
A Hybrid TP+PLS Algorithm for Biobjective FlowShop
Scheduling Problems.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2010019, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2010.
Published in Computers & Operations
Research [646].
[ bib 
http ]

[1064]

M. S. Hussin and Thomas Stützle.
Tabu Search vs. Simulated Annealing for Solving Large Quadratic
Assignment Instances.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2010020, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2010.
[ bib ]

[1065]

Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Improving the Anytime Behavior of TwoPhase Local Search.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2010022, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2010.
Published in Annals of Mathematics and Artificial
Intelligence [645].
[ bib 
http ]

[1066]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Joshua D. Knowles, and Marco Laumanns.
On Sequential Online Archiving of Objective Vectors.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2011001, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2011.
This is a revised version of the paper published in EMO
2011 [1393].
[ bib 
http ]

[1067]

Mauro Birattari, Marco Chiarandini, Marco Saerens, and Thomas Stützle.
Learning graphical models for parameter tuning.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2011002, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2011.
[ bib 
http ]

[1068]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
The Automatic Design of MultiObjective Ant Colony Optimization
Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2011003, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2011.
Published in IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary
Computation [1418].
[ bib 
http ]

[1069]

Tianjun Liao, Daniel Molina, Marco A. Montes de Oca, and Thomas Stützle.
A Note on the Effects of Enforcing Bound Constraints on
Algorithm Comparisons using the IEEE CEC'05 Benchmark Function Suite.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2011010, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2011.
Published in Evolutionary Computation [1344].
[ bib 
http ]

[1070]

Tianjun Liao, Daniel Molina, Marco A. Montes de Oca, and Thomas Stützle.
Computational Results for an Automatically Tuned IPOPCMAES
on the CEC'05 Benchmark Set.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2011022, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2011.
[ bib ]

[1071]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
Automatically Improving the Anytime Behaviour of Optimisation
Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2012012, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, May 2012.
Published in European Journal of Operations
Research [1419].
[ bib ]

[1072]

Andreea Radulescu, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas Stützle.
Automatically Improving the Anytime Behaviour of Multiobjective
Evolutionary Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2012019, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2012.
Published in the proceedings of EMO 2013 [1807].
[ bib ]

[1073]

Tianjun Liao, Thomas Stützle, Marco A. Montes de Oca, and Marco Dorigo.
A Unified Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Continuous
Optimization.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2013002, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2013.
[ bib ]

[1074]

Franco Mascia, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Jérémie DuboisLacoste,
and Thomas Stützle.
Grammarbased generation of stochastic local search heuristics
through automatic algorithm configuration tools.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2013015, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2013.
[ bib ]

[1075]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Arnaud Liefooghe, and Sébastien Verel.
Local Optimal Sets and Bounded Archiving on Multiobjective
NKLandscapes with Correlated Objectives.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2014009, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2014.
[ bib ]

[1076]

Vito Trianni and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Advantages of MultiObjective Optimisation in Evolutionary
Robotics: Survey and Case Studies.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2014014, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2014.
[ bib 
http ]

[1077]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
A LargeScale Experimental Evaluation of HighPerforming Multi
and ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2017005, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, November 2017.
[ bib ]

[1078]

Alberto Franzin, Leslie Pérez Cáceres, and Thomas Stützle.
Effect of Transformations of Numerical Parameters in Automatic
Algorithm Configuration.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2017006, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, March 2017.
[ bib 
http ]

[1079]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatic Configuration of Multiobjective Optimizers and
Multiobjective Configuration.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2017011, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, November 2017.
Published as [234].
[ bib 
http ]

[1080]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, MarieEléonore Kessaci, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatic Design of Hybrid Metaheuristics from Algorithmic
Components.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2017012, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, December 2017.
[ bib 
http ]

[1081]

Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatically Designing StateoftheArt Multi and
ManyObjective Evolutionary Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2018001, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, January 2018.
Published as [230].
[ bib 
http ]

[1082]

Alberto Franzin and Thomas Stützle.
Revisiting Simulated Annealing: a ComponentBased Analysis.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2018010, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2018.
[ bib 
http ]

[1083]

Christian Leonardo CamachoVillalón, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
PSOX: A ComponentBased Framework for the Automatic Design of
Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2021002, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2021.
[ bib 
http ]

[1084]

Alberto Franzin and Thomas Stützle.
A Landscapebased Analysis of Fixed Temperature and Simulated
Annealing.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2021005, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2021.
[ bib 
http ]

[1085]

Christian Leonardo CamachoVillalón, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Cuckoo Search ≡(μ+ λ)Evolution Strategy – A
Rigorous Analysis of an Algorithm That Has Been Misleading the Research
Community for More Than 10 Years and Nobody Seems to Have Noticed.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2021006, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2021.
[ bib 
http ]

[1086]

Claudio Iacopino and Phil Palmer.
The Dynamics of Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms Applied to
Binary Chains.
Swarm Intelligence, 6(4):343–377, 2012.
[ bib ]

[1087]

Claudio Iacopino, Phil Palmer, N. Policella, A. Donati, and A. Brewer.
How Ants Can Manage Your Satellites.
Acta Futura, 9:59–72, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: ACO, Space

[1088]

Toshihide Ibaraki, Shinji Imahori, Koji Nonobe, Kensuke Sobue, Takeaki Uno, and
Mutsunori Yagiura.
An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing
Problem with Convex Time Penalty Functions.
Discrete Applied Mathematics, 156(11):2050–2069, 2008.
[ bib ]

[1089]

Toshihide Ibaraki.
A Personal Perspective on Problem Solving by General Purpose
Solvers.
International Transactions in Operational Research,
17(3):303–315, 2010.
[ bib ]

[1090]

Jonas Ide and Anita Schöbel.
Robustness for uncertain multiobjective optimization: a survey
and analysis of different concepts.
OR Spectrum, 38(1):235–271, 2016.
[ bib 
DOI ]
In this paper, we discuss various concepts of robustness for
uncertain multiobjective optimization problems. We extend
the concepts of flimsily, highly, and lightly robust
efficiency and we collect different versions of minmax robust
efficiency and concepts based on set order relations from the
literature. Altogether, we compare and analyze ten different
concepts and point out their relations to each
other. Furthermore, we present reduction results for the
class of objectivewise uncertain multiobjective
optimization problems.

[1091]

Christian Igel, Nikolaus Hansen, and S. Roth.
Covariance Matrix Adaptation for Multiobjective Optimization.
Evolutionary Computation, 15(1):1–28, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1092]

Christian Igel, V. HeidrichMeisner, and T. Glasmachers.
Shark.
Journal of Machine Learning Research, 9:993–996, June 2008.
[ bib 
http ]

[1093]

Kokolo Ikeda, Hajime Kita, and Shigenobu Kobayashi.
Failure of Paretobased MOEAs: Does nondominated really
mean near to optimal?
In Proceedings of the 2001 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC'01), pages 957–962. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2001.
[ bib ]

[1094]

Nesa Ilich and Slobodan P. Simonovic.
Evolutionary Algorithm for minimization of pumping cost.
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE,
12(4):232–240, October 1998.
[ bib ]
This paper deals with minimizing the total cost of
pumping in a liquid pipeline. Previous experience
with the most common solution procedures in pipeline
optimization is discussed along with their strengths
and weaknesses. The proposed method is an
evolutionary algorithm with two distinct features:
(1) The search is restricted to feasible region
only; and (2) it utilizes a floating point decision
variable rather than integer or binary as is the
case with most other similar approaches. A numerical
example is presented as a basis for verification of
the proposed method and its comparison with the
existing solver that utilizes the nonlinear
Newtonian search. The proposed method provides
promising improvements in terms of optimality when
compared to the widespread gradient search methods
because it does not involve evaluation of the
gradient of the objective function. It also provides
potential to improve the performance of previous
evolutionary programs because it restricts the
search to the feasible region, thus eliminating
large overhead associated with generation and
inspection of solutions that are
infeasible. Comparison of the two solutions revealed
improvement of the solution in favor of the proposed
algorithm, which ranged up to 6% depending on the
initial values of the decision variables in the
Newtonian search. The proposed method was not
sensitive to the starting value of the decision
variables.

[1095]

Janine Illian, Antti Penttinen, Helga Stoyan, and Dietrich Stoyan.
Statistical Analysis and Modelling of Spatial Point Patterns.
Wiley, 2008.
[ bib ]

[1096]

Takashi Imamichi, Mutsunori Yagiura, and Hiroshi Nagamochi.
An Iterated Local Search Algorithm Based on Nonlinear
Programming for the Irregular Strip Packing Problem.
Discrete Optimization, 6(4):345–361, 2009.
[ bib ]

[1097]

Alfred Inselberg.
The Plane with Parallel Coordinates.
The Visual Computer, 1(2):69–91, 1985.
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[1098]

John P. A. Ioannidis.
Why Most Published Research Findings Are False.
PLoS Medicine, 2(8):e124, 2005.
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DOI ]

[1099]

S. Iredi, D. Merkle, and Martin Middendorf.
BiCriterion Optimization with Multi Colony Ant Algorithms.
In E. Zitzler, K. Deb, L. Thiele, C. A. Coello Coello, and
D. Corne, editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2001,
volume 1993 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 359–372.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2001.
[ bib ]

[1100]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
Automatically Improving the Anytime Behaviour of Optimisation
Algorithms: Supplementary material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2012011/, 2012.
[ bib ]

[1101]

Stefan Irnich.
A Unified Modeling and Solution Framework for Vehicle Routing
and Local SearchBased Metaheuristics.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(2):270–287, 2008.
[ bib ]

[1102]

Ekhine Irurozki, Borja Calvo, and José A. Lozano.
Sampling and Learning Mallows and Generalized Mallows Models
Under the Cayley Distance.
Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability, 20(1):1–35,
June 2016.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1103]

Ekhine Irurozki, Borja Calvo, and José A. Lozano.
PerMallows: An R Package for Mallows
and Generalized Mallows Models.
Journal of Statistical Software, 71, 2019.
[ bib 
DOI ]
In this paper we present the R package PerMallows, which is a
complete toolbox to work with permutations, distances and
some of the most popular probability models for permutations:
Mallows and the Generalized Mallows models. The Mallows model
is an exponential location model, considered as analogous to
the Gaussian distribution. It is based on the definition of a
distance between permutations. The Generalized Mallows model
is its bestknown extension. The package includes functions
for making inference, sampling and learning such
distributions. The distances considered in PerMallows are
Kendall's τ, Cayley, Hamming and Ulam.
Keywords: Cayley,Generalized Mallows,Hamming,Kendall's
τ,Learning,Mallows,Permutation,R,Ranking,Sampling,Ulam

[1104]

Ekhine Irurozki, Jesus Lobo, Aritz Perez, and Javier Del Ser.
Rank aggregation for nonstationary data streams.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1910.08795 [stat.ML], 2020.
[ bib 
http ]
Keywords: uborda

[1105]

Ekhine Irurozki and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Unbalanced Mallows Models for Optimizing Expensive BlackBox
Permutation Problems.
In F. Chicano and K. Krawiec, editors, Proceedings of the
Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2021. ACM Press, New
York, NY, 2021.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]
Expensive blackbox combinatorial optimization problems arise
in practice when the objective function is evaluated by means
of a simulator or a realworld experiment. Since each fitness
evaluation is expensive in terms of time or resources, only a
limited number of evaluations is possible, typically several
orders of magnitude smaller than in nonexpensive
problems. In this scenario, classical optimization methods
such as mixedinteger programming and local search are not
useful. In the continuous case, Bayesian optimization, in
particular using Gaussian processes, has proven very
effective under these conditions. Much less research is
available in the combinatorial case. In this paper, we
propose and analyze UMM, an estimationofdistribution (EDA)
algorithm based on a Mallows probabilistic model and
unbalanced rank aggregation (uBorda). Experimental results on
blackbox versions of LOP and PFSP show that UMM is able to
match, and sometimes surpass, the solutions obtained by CEGO,
a Bayesian optimization algorithm for combinatorial
optimization. Moreover, the computational complexity of UMM
increases linearly with both the number of function
evaluations and the permutation size.

[1106]

Hisao Ishibuchi and T. Murata.
A multiobjective genetic local search algorithm and its
application to flowshop scheduling.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part C,
28(3):392–403, 1998.
[ bib ]

[1107]

Hisao Ishibuchi, N. Akedo, and Y. Nojima.
Behavior of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms on
ManyObjective Knapsack Problems.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 19(2):264–283,
2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1108]

Hisao Ishibuchi, Hiroyuki Masuda, and Yusuke Nojima.
A Study on Performance Evaluation Ability of a Modified Inverted
Generational Distance Indicator.
In S. Silva and A. I. EsparciaAlcázar, editors,
Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO
2015, pages 695–702. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2015.
[ bib ]

[1109]

Hisao Ishibuchi, Hiroyuki Masuda, Yuki Tanigaki, and Yusuke Nojima.
Modified Distance Calculation in Generational Distance and
Inverted Generational Distance.
In A. GasparCunha, C. H. Antunes, and C. A. Coello Coello,
editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2015 Part I,
volume 9018 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 110–125.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2015.
[ bib ]
Proposed IGD+
Keywords: Performance metrics, multiobjective, IGD, IGD+

[1110]

Hisao Ishibuchi, Shinta Misaki, and Hideo Tanaka.
Modified simulated annealing algorithms for the flow shop
sequencing problem.
European Journal of Operational Research, 81(2):388–398, 1995.
[ bib ]

[1111]

Hisao Ishibuchi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Nojima.
Evolutionary manyobjective optimization: A short review.
In Proceedings of the 2008 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 2008), pages 2419–2426, Piscataway, NJ, 2008. IEEE Press.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1112]

Srikanth K. Iyer and Barkha Saxena.
Improved genetic algorithm for the permutation flowshop
scheduling problem.
Computers & Operations Research, 31(4):593–606, 2004.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1113]

Christopher H. Jackson.
MultiState Models for Panel Data: The msm Package
for R.
Journal of Statistical Software, 38(8):1–29, 2011.
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http ]

[1114]

Richard H. F. Jackson, Paul T. Boggs, Stephen G. Nash, and Susan Powell.
Guidelines for Reporting Results of Computational Experiments.
Report of the Ad Hoc Committee.
Mathematical Programming, 49(3):413–425, 1991.
[ bib ]

[1115]

Larry W. Jacobs and Michael J. Brusco.
A Local Search Heuristic for Large SetCovering Problems.
Naval Research Logistics, 42(7):1129–1140, 1995.
[ bib ]

[1116]

Sophie Jacquin, Laetitia Jourdan, and ElGhazali Talbi.
Dynamic Programming Based Metaheuristic for Energy Planning
Problems.
In A. I. EsparciaAlcázar and A. M. Mora, editors,
Applications of Evolutionary Computation, volume 8602 of Lecture Notes
in Computer Science, pages 165–176. Springer, Heidelberg, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: irace

[1117]

Warren G. Jackson, Ender Özcan, and Robert I. John.
Move acceptance in local search metaheuristics for crossdomain
search.
Expert Systems with Applications, 109:131–151, 2018.
[ bib ]

[1118]

Daniel M Jaeggi, Geoffrey T Parks, Timoleon Kipouros, and P John Clarkson.
The development of a multiobjective Tabu Search algorithm for
continuous optimisation problems.
European Journal of Operational Research, 185(3):1192–1212,
2008.
[ bib ]

[1119]

Antonio López Jaimes, Carlos A. Coello Coello, and Debrup Chakraborty.
Objective reduction using a feature selection technique.
In C. Ryan, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary
Computation Conference, GECCO 2008, pages 673–680. ACM Press, New York, NY,
2008.
[ bib ]

[1120]

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basis. Both unit and maximum demand electricity
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structure of the electricity tariff, the
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deterministicconcurrent and randomconcurrent and
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algorithm selection model that, compared to the portfolio's
single best solver, on average requires less than half of the
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SATenstein: Automatically Building Local Search SAT Solvers
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In C. Boutilier, editor, Proceedings of the TwentyFirst
International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI09), pages
517–524. AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA, 2009.
[ bib 
eprint ]

[1211]

Philip Kilby and Tommaso Urli.
Fleet design optimisation from historical data using constraint
programming and large neighbourhood search.
Constraints, pages 1–20, 2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Keywords: Frace

[1212]

YeongDae Kim.
Heuristics for Flowshop Scheduling Problems Minimizing Mean
Tardiness.
Journal of the Operational Research Society, 44(1):19–28,
1993.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1213]

Youngmin Kim, Richard Allmendinger, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Safe Learning and Optimization Techniques: Towards a Survey of
the State of the Art.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:2101.09505 [cs.LG], 2020.
[ bib 
http ]
Safe learning and optimization deals with learning and
optimization problems that avoid, as much as possible, the
evaluation of nonsafe input points, which are solutions,
policies, or strategies that cause an irrecoverable loss
(e.g., breakage of a machine or equipment, or life
threat). Although a comprehensive survey of safe
reinforcement learning algorithms was published in 2015, a
number of new algorithms have been proposed thereafter, and
related works in active learning and in optimization were not
considered. This paper reviews those algorithms from a number
of domains including reinforcement learning, Gaussian process
regression and classification, evolutionary algorithms, and
active learning. We provide the fundamental concepts on which
the reviewed algorithms are based and a characterization of
the individual algorithms. We conclude by explaining how the
algorithms are connected and suggestions for future
research.

[1214]

Youngmin Kim, Richard Allmendinger, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Safe Learning and Optimization Techniques: Towards a Survey of
the State of the Art.
In F. Heintz, M. Milano, and B. O'Sullivan, editors, Trustworthy
AI – Integrating Learning, Optimization and Reasoning. TAILOR 2020, volume
12641 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 123–139. Springer,
Cham, Switzerland, 2020.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Safe learning and optimization deals with learning and
optimization problems that avoid, as much as possible, the
evaluation of nonsafe input points, which are solutions,
policies, or strategies that cause an irrecoverable loss
(e.g., breakage of a machine or equipment, or life
threat). Although a comprehensive survey of safe
reinforcement learning algorithms was published in 2015, a
number of new algorithms have been proposed thereafter, and
related works in active learning and in optimization were not
considered. This paper reviews those algorithms from a number
of domains including reinforcement learning, Gaussian process
regression and classification, evolutionary computing, and
active learning. We provide the fundamental concepts on which
the reviewed algorithms are based and a characterization of
the individual algorithms. We conclude by explaining how the
algorithms are connected and suggestions for future
research.

[1215]

Jungtaek Kim, Michael McCourt, Tackgeun You, Saehoon Kim, and Seungjin Choi.
Bayesian Optimization with Approximate Set Kernels.
Machine Learning, 2021.
[ bib 
DOI ]
We propose a practical Bayesian optimization method over
sets, to minimize a blackbox function that takes a set as a
single input. Because set inputs are permutationinvariant,
traditional Gaussian processbased Bayesian optimization
strategies which assume vector inputs can fall short. To
address this, we develop a Bayesian optimization method with
set kernel that is used to build surrogate
functions. This kernel accumulates similarity over set
elements to enforce permutationinvariance, but this comes at
a greater computational cost. To reduce this burden, we
propose two key components: (i) a more efficient approximate
set kernel which is still positivedefinite and is an
unbiased estimator of the true set kernel with upperbounded
variance in terms of the number of subsamples, (ii) a
constrained acquisition function optimization over sets,
which uses symmetry of the feasible region that defines a set
input. Finally, we present several numerical experiments
which demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods.

[1216]

J.S. Kim, J.H. Park, and D.H. Lee.
Iterated Greedy Algorithms to Minimize the Total Family Flow
Time for Jobshop Scheduling with Job Families and Sequencedependent
Setups.
Engineering Optimization, 49(10):1719–1732, 2017.
[ bib ]

[1217]

Diederik P Kingma and Jimmy Ba.
Adam: A method for stochastic optimization.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1412.6980 [cs.LG], 2014.
[ bib 
http ]
Published as a conference paper at the 3rd International
Conference for Learning Representations, San Diego, 2015

[1218]

Scott Kirkpatrick and G. Toulouse.
Configuration Space Analysis of Travelling Salesman Problems.
Journal de Physique, 46(8):1277–1292, 1985.
[ bib ]

[1219]

Scott Kirkpatrick.
Optimization by Simulated Annealing: Quantitative Studies.
Journal of Statistical Physics, 34(56):975–986, 1984.
[ bib ]

[1220]

Scott Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi.
Optimization by Simulated Annealing.
Science, 220:671–680, 1983.
[ bib ]

[1221]

Anton J. Kleywegt, Alexander Shapiro, and Tito HomemdeMello.
The Sample Average Approximation Method for Stochastic Discrete
Optimization.
SIAM Journal on Optimization, 12(2):479–502, 2002.
[ bib ]

[1222]

Joshua D. Knowles.
A summaryattainmentsurface plotting method for visualizing the
performance of stochastic multiobjective optimizers.
In A. Abraham and M. Paprzycki, editors, Proceedings of the 5th
International Conference on Intelligent Systems Design and Applications,
pages 552–557, 2005.
[ bib 
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eprint 
supplementary material ]

[1223]

Joshua D. Knowles.
ParEGO: A hybrid algorithm with online landscape
approximation for expensive multiobjective optimization problems.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 10(1):50–66,
2006.
[ bib ]
Keywords: ParEGO, online, metamodel

[1224]

Joshua D. Knowles.
Closedloop evolutionary multiobjective optimization.
IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 4:77–91, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1225]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
Approximating the Nondominated Front Using the Pareto Archived
Evolution Strategy.
Evolutionary Computation, 8(2):149–172, 2000.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1226]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
The Pareto Archived Evolution Strategy: A New Baseline
Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimisation.
In Proceedings of the 1999 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 1999), pages 98–105. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 1999.
[ bib ]
first mention of Adaptive Grid Archiving

[1227]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
On Metrics for Comparing NonDominated Sets.
In Proceedings of the 2002 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC'02), pages 711–716. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2002.
[ bib ]

[1228]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
Instance Generators and Test Suites for the Multiobjective
Quadratic Assignment Problem.
In C. M. Fonseca, P. J. Fleming, E. Zitzler, K. Deb, and L. Thiele,
editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2003, volume
2632 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 295–310, Heidelberg,
2003. Springer.
[ bib ]

[1229]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
Properties of an Adaptive Archiving Algorithm for Storing
Nondominated Vectors.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 7(2):100–116,
April 2003.
[ bib ]
Proposed to use Smetric (hypervolume metric) for
environmental selection
Keywords: Smetric, hypervolume

[1230]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
Bounded Pareto Archiving: Theory and Practice.
In X. Gandibleux, M. Sevaux, K. Sörensen, and V. T'Kindt,
editors, Metaheuristics for Multiobjective Optimisation, volume 535 of
Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, pages 39–64.
Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1231]

Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne.
Memetic algorithms for multiobjective optimization: issues,
methods and prospects.
In H. W. E., S. J. E., and K. N., editors, Recent Advances in
Memetic Algorithms, volume 166 of Studies in Fuzziness and Soft
Computing, pages 313–352. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1232]

Joshua D. Knowles, David Corne, and Kalyanmoy Deb.
Introduction: Problem solving, EC and EMO.
In J. D. Knowles, D. Corne, K. Deb, and D. R. Chair, editors,
Multiobjective Problem Solving from Nature, Natural Computing Series, pages
1–28. Springer, 2008.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1233]

Joshua D. Knowles, David Corne, and Mark Fleischer.
Bounded archiving using the Lebesgue measure.
In Proceedings of the 2003 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 2003), volume 4, pages 2490–2497. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, December
2003.
[ bib ]

[1234]

Joshua D. Knowles, David Corne, and Alan P. Reynolds.
Noisy Multiobjective Optimization on a Budget of 250
Evaluations.
In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.K. Hao, and
M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO
2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 36–50.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib ]

[1235]

Joshua D. Knowles, Lothar Thiele, and Eckart Zitzler.
A tutorial on the performance assessment of stochastic
multiobjective optimizers.
TIKReport 214, Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory (TIK),
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zürich, Switzerland,
February 2006.
Revised version.
[ bib 
eprint ]

[1236]

Mirjam J. Knol, Tyler J. VanderWeele, Rolf H. H. Groenwold, Olaf H. Klungel,
Maroeska M. Rovers, and Diederick E. Grobbee.
Estimating measures of interaction on an additive scale for
preventive exposures.
European Journal of Epidemiology, 26(6):433–438, 2011.
[ bib ]

[1237]

Joshua D. Knowles, Richard A. Watson, and David Corne.
Reducing Local Optima in SingleObjective Problems by
Multiobjectivization.
In E. Zitzler, K. Deb, L. Thiele, C. A. Coello Coello, and
D. Corne, editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2001,
volume 1993 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 269–283.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2001.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Proposed multiobjectivization

[1238]

Joshua D. Knowles.
LocalSearch and Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms for Pareto
Optimization.
PhD thesis, University of Reading, UK, 2002.
[ bib ]
(Examiners: Prof. K. Deb and Prof. K. Warwick)

[1239]

Gary A. Kochenberger, Fred Glover, Bahram Alidaee, and Cesar Rego.
A unified modeling and solution framework for combinatorial
optimization problems.
OR Spektrum, 26(2):237–250, 2004.
[ bib ]

[1240]

Gary A. Kochenberger, JinKao Hao, Fred Glover, Mark Lewis, Zhipeng Lü,
Haibo Wang, and Yang Wang.
The unconstrained binary quadratic programming problem: a
survey.
Journal of Combinatorial Optimization, 28(1):58–81, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1241]

Murat Köksalan.
Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization: Some Approaches.
Journal of MultiCriteria Decision Analysis, 15:69–78, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1242]

Murat Köksalan and İbrahim Karahan.
An Interactive Territory Defining Evolutionary Algorithm:
iTDEA.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 14(5):702–722,
October 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1243]

Rainer Kolisch and Sönke Hartmann.
Experimental investigation of heuristics for
resourceconstrained project scheduling: An update.
European Journal of Operational Research, 174(1):23–37,
October 2006.
[ bib 
DOI ]
This paper considers heuristics for the wellknown
resourceconstrained project scheduling problem
(RCPSP). It provides an update of our survey which
was published in 2000. We summarize and categorize a
large number of heuristics that have recently been
proposed in the literature. Most of these heuristics
are then evaluated in a computational study and
compared on the basis of our standardized
experimental design. Based on the computational
results we discuss features of good heuristics. The
paper closes with some remarks on our test design
and a summary of the recent developments in research
on heuristics for the RCPSP.
Keywords: Computational evaluation, Heuristics, Project
scheduling, Resource constraints

[1244]

A. Kolen and Erwin Pesch.
Genetic Local Search in Combinatorial Optimization.
Discrete Applied Mathematics, 48(3):273–284, 1994.
[ bib ]

[1245]

Joshua B. Kollat and Patrick M. Reed.
A framework for visually interactive decisionmaking and design
using evolutionary multiobjective optimization (VIDEO).
Environmental Modelling & Software, 22(12):1691–1704, 2007.
[ bib ]
Keywords: glyph plot

[1246]

T. C. Koopmans and M. J. Beckmann.
Assignment Problems and the Location of Economic Activities.
Econometrica, 25:53–76, 1957.
[ bib ]

[1247]

Mario Koppen and Kaori Yoshida.
Visualization of Paretosets in evolutionary multiobjective
optimization.
In 7th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems
(HIS 2007), pages 156–161. IEEE, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1248]

Jsh Kornbluth.
Sequential multicriterion decision making.
Omega, 13(6):569–574, 1985.
[ bib 
DOI ]
In this paper we consider a simple sequential
multicriterion decision making problem in which a
decision maker has to accept or reject a series of
multiattributed outcomes. We show that using very
simple programming techniques, a great deal of the
decision making can be automated. The method might
be applicable to situations in which a dealer is
having to consider sequential offers in a trading
market.
Keywords: machine decision making

[1249]

Flip Korn, B.U. Pagel, and Christos Faloutsos.
On the “dimensionality curse” and the “selfsimilarity
blessing”.
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering,
13(1):96–111, 2001.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Spatial queries in highdimensional spaces have been studied
extensively. Among them, nearest neighbor queries are
important in many settings, including spatial databases (Find
the k closest cities) and multimedia databases (Find the k
most similar images). Previous analyses have concluded that
nearestneighbor search is hopeless in high dimensions due to
the notorious "curse of dimensionality". We show that this
may be overpessimistic. We show that what determines the
search performance (at least for Rtreelike structures) is
the intrinsic dimensionality of the data set and not the
dimensionality of the address space (referred to as the
embedding dimensionality). The typical (and often implicit)
assumption in many previous studies is that the data is
uniformly distributed, with independence between
attributes. However, real data sets overwhelmingly disobey
these assumptions; rather, they typically are skewed and
exhibit intrinsic ("fractal") dimensionalities that are much
lower than their embedding dimension, e.g. due to subtle
dependencies between attributes. We show how the Hausdorff
and Correlation fractal dimensions of a data set can yield
extremely accurate formulas that can predict the I/O
performance to within one standard deviation on multiple real
and synthetic data sets.

[1250]

P. Korošec, Jurij Šilc, K. Oblak, and F. Kosel.
The differential antstigmergy algorithm: an experimental
evaluation and a realworld application.
In Proceedings of the 2007 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 2007), pages 157–164. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1251]

P. Korošec, Jurij Šilc, and B. Robič.
MeshPartitioning with the Multiple AntColony Algorithm.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, 4th International Workshop, ANTS 2004, volume 3172 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 430–431. Springer, Heidelberg,
2004.
[ bib ]

[1252]

P. Korošec, Jurij Šilc, and B. Robič.
Solving the meshpartitioning problem with an antcolony
algorithm.
Parallel Computing, 30:785–801, 2004.
[ bib ]

[1253]

Oliver Korb, Thomas Stützle, and Thomas E. Exner.
PLANTS: Application of ant colony optimization to
structurebased drug design.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, 5th International Workshop, ANTS 2006, volume 4150 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 247–258. Springer, Heidelberg,
2006.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1254]

Oliver Korb, Thomas Stützle, and Thomas E. Exner.
An Ant Colony Optimization Approach to Flexible Protein–Ligand
Docking.
Swarm Intelligence, 1(2):115–134, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1255]

Oliver Korb, Thomas Stützle, and Thomas E. Exner.
Empirical Scoring Functions for Advanced ProteinLigand Docking
with PLANTS.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 49(2):84–96,
2009.
[ bib ]

[1256]

Oliver Korb, Peter Monecke, Gerhard Hessler, Thomas Stützle, and Thomas E.
Exner.
pharmACOphore: Multiple Flexible Ligand Alignment Based on Ant
Colony Optimization.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 50(9):1669–1681,
2010.
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[1257]

Lars Kotthoff.
Algorithm Selection for Combinatorial Search Problems: A
Survey.
AI Magazine, 35(3):48–60, 2014.
[ bib ]

[1258]

Timo Kötzing, Frank Neumann, Heiko Röglin, and Carsten Witt.
Theoretical Analysis of Two ACO Approaches for the Traveling
Salesman Problem.
Swarm Intelligence, 6(1):1–21, 2012.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Bioinspired algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms and
ant colony optimization, are widely used for different
combinatorial optimization problems. These algorithms rely
heavily on the use of randomness and are hard to understand
from a theoretical point of view. This paper contributes to
the theoretical analysis of ant colony optimization and
studies this type of algorithm on one of the most prominent
combinatorial optimization problems, namely the traveling
salesperson problem (TSP). We present a new construction
graph and show that it has a stronger local property than one
commonly used for constructing solutions of the TSP. The
rigorous runtime analysis for two ant colony optimization
algorithms, based on these two construction procedures, shows
that they lead to good approximation in expected polynomial
time on random instances. Furthermore, we point out in which
situations our algorithms get trapped in local optima and
show where the use of the right amount of heuristic
information is provably beneficial.

[1259]

Lars Kotthoff, Chris Thornton, Holger H. Hoos, Frank Hutter, and Kevin
LeytonBrown.
AutoWEKA 2.0: Automatic model selection and hyperparameter
optimization in WEKA.
Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17:1–5, 2016.
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O. Kovářík and M. Skrbek.
Ant Colony Optimization with Castes.
In V. KurkovaPohlova and J. Koutnik, editors, ICANN'08:
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Networks, Part I, volume 5163 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
pages 435–442. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008.
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Katharina Kowalski, Sigrid Stagl, Reinhard Madlener, and Ines Omann.
Sustainable energy futures: Methodological challenges in
combining scenarios and participatory multicriteria analysis.
European Journal of Operational Research, 197(3):1063–1074,
2009.
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Slawomir Koziel, David Echeverría Ciaurri, and Leifur Leifsson.
SurrogateBased Methods.
In S. Koziel and X.S. Yang, editors, Computational
Optimization, Methods and Algorithms, volume 356 of Studies in
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[ bib ]

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J. Koza.
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Means of Natural Selection.
MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.
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Oliver Kramer.
Iterated Local Search with Powell's Method: A Memetic
Algorithm for Continuous Global Optimization.
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Daniel Krajzewicz, Jakob Erdmann, Michael Behrisch, and Laura Bieker.
Recent development and applications of SUMO  Simulation of
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Oliver Kramer, Bartek Gloger, and Andreas Goebels.
An Experimental Analysis of Evolution Strategies and Particle
Swarm Optimisers Using Design of Experiments.
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Daniel Krajzewicz, Marek Heinrich, Michela Milano, Paolo Bellavista, Thomas
Stützle, Jérôme Härri, Thrasyvoulos Spyropoulos, Robbin
Blokpoel, Stefan Hausberger, and Martin Fellendorf.
COLOMBO: Investigating the Potential of V2X for Traffic
Management Purposes assuming low penetration Rates.
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Daniel Krajzewicz, Andreas Leich, Robbin Blokpoel, Michela Milano, and Thomas
Stützle.
COLOMBO: Exploiting Vehicular Communications at Low Equipment
Rates for Traffic Management Purposes.
In T. Schulze, B. Müller, and G. Meyer, editors, Advanced
Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2015: Smart Systems for Green and
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Jakob Krarup and Peter Mark Pruzan.
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Johannes Krettek, Jan Braun, Frank Hoffmann, and Torsten Bertram.
Interactive Incorporation of User Preferences in Multiobjective
Evolutionary Algorithms.
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Johannes Krettek, Jan Braun, Frank Hoffmann, and Torsten Bertram.
Preference Modeling and Model Management for Interactive
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[ bib 
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Application of heuristic solution procedures to the
practical problem of project scheduling has
previously been studied by numerous
researchers. However, there is little consensus
about their findings, and the practicing manager is
currently at a loss as to which scheduling rule to
use. Furthermore, since no categorization process
was developed, it is assumed that once a rule is
selected it must be used throughout the whole
project. This research breaks away from this
tradition by providing a categorization process
based on two powerful project summary measures. The
first measure identifies the location of the peak of
total resource requirements and the second measure
identifies the rate of utilization of each resource
type. The performance of the rules are classified
according to values of these two measures, and it is
shown that a rule introduced by this research
performs significantly better on most categories of
projects.
Keywords: project management, research and development

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H. J. Kushner.
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[ bib 
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A versatile and practical method of searching a parameter
space is presented. Theoretical and experimental results
illustrate the usefulness of the method for such problems as
the experimental optimization of the performance of a system
with a very general multipeak performance function when the
only available information is noisedistributed samples of
the function. At present, its usefulness is restricted to
optimization with respect to one system parameter. The
observations are taken sequentially; but, as opposed to the
gradient method, the observation may be located anywhere on
the parameter interval. A sequence of estimates of the
location of the curve maximum is generated. The location of
the next observation may be interpreted as the location of
the most likely competitor (with the current best estimate)
for the location of the curve maximum. A Brownian motion
stochastic process is selected as a model for the unknown
function, and the observations are interpreted with respect
to the model. The model gives the results a simple intuitive
interpretation and allows the use of simple but efficient
sampling procedures. The resulting process possesses some
powerful convergence properties in the presence of noise; it
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[1376]

Andrea Lodi, Silvano Martello, and Daniele Vigo.
Heuristic and metaheuristic approaches for a class of
twodimensional bin packing problems.
INFORMS Journal on Computing, 11(4):345–357, 1999.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1377]

Andrea Lodi, Silvano Martello, and Daniele Vigo.
TSpack: a unified tabu search code for multidimensional bin
packing problems.
Annals of Operations Research, 131(14):203–213, 2004.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1378]

Andrea Lodi and Andrea Tramontani.
Performance Variability in MixedInteger Programming.
In H. Topaluglu, editor, Theory Driven by Influential
Applications, pages 1–12. INFORMS, 2013.
[ bib ]

[1379]

Andrea Lodi, Silvano Martello, and Daniele Vigo.
Two and ThreeDimensional Bin Packing – Source Code of
TSpack.
http://or.dei.unibo.it/research_pages/ORcodes/TSpack.html,
2004.
[ bib ]

[1380]

PoLing Loh and Sebastian Nowozin.
Faster Hoeffding Racing: Bernstein Races via Jackknife
Estimates.
In S. Jain, R. Munos, F. Stephan, and T. Zeugmann, editors,
Proceedings of Algorithmic Learning Theory, volume 8139 of Lecture
Notes in Computer Science, pages 203–217, Berlin, Germany, 2013. Springer.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1381]

Manuel LópezIbáñez.
High Performance Ant Colony Optimisation of the Pump Scheduling
Problem.
In P. Alberigo, G. Erbacci, F. Garofalo, and S. Monfardini, editors,
Science and Sumpercomputing in Europe, pages 371–375. CINECA, 2007.
[ bib ]

[1382]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Christian Blum.
BeamACO Based on Stochastic Sampling: A Case Study on the
TSP with Time Windows.
Technical Report LSI0828, Department LSI, Universitat
Politècnica de Catalunya, 2008.
Extended version published in Computers & Operations
Research [1385].
[ bib ]

[1383]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Christian Blum, Dhananjay Thiruvady,
Andreas T. Ernst, and Bernd Meyer.
BeamACO based on stochastic sampling for makespan
optimization concerning the TSP with time windows.
In C. Cotta and P. Cowling, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2009
– 9th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial
Optimization, volume 5482 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
97–108. Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1384]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Christian Blum.
BeamACO Based on Stochastic Sampling: A Case Study on the
TSP with Time Windows.
In T. Stützle, editor, Learning and Intelligent
Optimization, Third International Conference, LION 3, volume 5851 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 59–73. Springer, Heidelberg, 2009.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1385]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Christian Blum.
BeamACO for the travelling salesman problem with time
windows.
Computers & Operations Research, 37(9):1570–1583, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]
The travelling salesman problem with time windows is
a difficult optimization problem that arises, for
example, in logistics. This paper deals with the
minimization of the travelcost. For solving this
problem, this paper proposes a BeamACO algorithm,
which is a hybrid method combining ant colony
optimization with beam search. In general, BeamACO
algorithms heavily rely on accurate and
computationally inexpensive bounding information for
differentiating between partial solutions. This work
uses stochastic sampling as a useful alternative. An
extensive experimental evaluation on seven benchmark
sets from the literature shows that the proposed
BeamACO algorithm is currently a stateoftheart
technique for the travelling salesman problem with
time windows when travelcost optimization is
concerned.
Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Travelling salesman problem with
time windows, Hybridization

[1386]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Christian Blum, Jeffrey W. Ohlmann, and
Barrett W. Thomas.
The Travelling Salesman Problem with Time Windows: Adapting
Algorithms from Traveltime to Makespan Optimization.
Applied Soft Computing, 13(9):3806–3815, 2013.
[ bib 
DOI 
eprint ]

[1387]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Jürgen Branke, and Luís Paquete.
Reproducibility in Evolutionary Computation.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:20102.03380 [cs.AI], 2021.
[ bib 
http ]
Experimental studies are prevalent in Evolutionary
Computation (EC), and concerns about the reproducibility and
replicability of such studies have increased in recent times,
reflecting similar concerns in other scientific fields. In
this article, we suggest a classification of different types
of reproducibility that refines the badge system of the
Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) adopted by TELO. We
discuss, within the context of EC, the different types of
reproducibility as well as the concepts of artifact and
measurement, which are crucial for claiming
reproducibility. We identify cultural and technical obstacles
to reproducibility in the EC field. Finally, we provide
guidelines and suggest tools that may help to overcome some
of these reproducibility obstacles.
Keywords: Evolutionary Computation, Reproducibility, Empirical study,
Benchmarking

[1388]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Leslie
Pérez Cáceres, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari.
The irace Package: Iterated Racing for Automatic
Algorithm Configuration.
Operations Research Perspectives, 3:43–58, 2016.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]

[1389]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Leslie
Pérez Cáceres, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari.
The irace Package: Iterated Racing for Automatic
Algorithm Configuration (Supplementary Material).
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2016003, 2016.
[ bib ]

[1390]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Jérémie DuboisLacoste, Thomas
Stützle, and Mauro Birattari.
The irace package, Iterated Race for Automatic
Algorithm Configuration.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2011004, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2011.
Published in Operations Research
Perspectives [1388].
[ bib 
http ]

[1391]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, MarieEléonore Kessaci, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatic Design of Hybrid Metaheuristics from Algorithmic
Components.
Submitted, 2017.
[ bib ]

[1392]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Joshua D. Knowles.
Machine Decision Makers as a Laboratory for Interactive EMO.
In A. GasparCunha, C. H. Antunes, and C. A. Coello Coello,
editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2015 Part II,
volume 9019 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 295–309.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2015.
[ bib 
DOI ]
A key challenge, perhaps the central challenge, of
multiobjective optimization is how to deal with candidate
solutions that are ultimately evaluated by the hidden or
unknown preferences of a human decision maker (DM) who
understands and cares about the optimization problem.
Alternative ways of addressing this challenge exist but
perhaps the favoured one currently is the interactive
approach (proposed in various forms). Here, an evolutionary
multiobjective optimization algorithm (EMOA) is controlled
by a series of interactions with the DM so that preferences
can be elicited and the direction of search controlled. MCDM
has a key role to play in designing and evaluating these
approaches, particularly in testing them with real DMs, but
so far quantitative assessment of interactive EMOAs has been
limited. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework
for this problem of quantitative assessment, based on the
definition of machine decision makers (machine DMs), made
somewhat realistic by the incorporation of various
nonidealities. The machine DM proposed here draws from
earlier models of DM biases and inconsistencies in the MCDM
literature. As a practical illustration of our approach, we
use the proposed machine DM to study the performance of an
interactive EMOA, and discuss how this framework could help
in the evaluation and development of better interactive
EMOAs.

[1393]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Joshua D. Knowles, and Marco Laumanns.
On Sequential Online Archiving of Objective Vectors.
In R. H. C. Takahashi et al., editors, Evolutionary
Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2011, volume 6576 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 46–60. Springer, Heidelberg, 2011.
[ bib 
DOI ]
In this paper, we examine the problem of maintaining
an approximation of the set of nondominated points
visited during a multiobjective optimization, a
problem commonly known as archiving. Most of the
currently available archiving algorithms are
reviewed, and what is known about their convergence
and approximation properties is summarized. The main
scenario considered is the restricted case where the
archive must be updated online as points are
generated one by one, and at most a fixed number of
points are to be stored in the archive at any one
time. In this scenario, the bettermonotonicity of
an archiving algorithm is proposed as a weaker, but
more practical, property than negative efficiency
preservation. This paper shows that
hypervolumebased archivers and a recently proposed
multilevel grid archiver have this property. On the
other hand, the archiving methods used by SPEA2 and
NSGAII do not, and they may betterdeteriorate with
time. The bettermonotonicity property has meaning
on any input sequence of points. We also classify
archivers according to limit properties,
i.e. convergence and approximation properties of the
archiver in the limit of infinite (input) samples
from a finite space with strictly positive
generation probabilities for all points. This paper
establishes a number of research questions, and
provides the initial framework and analysis for
answering them.
Revised version available at http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/IridiaTrSeries/IridiaTr2011001.pdf

[1394]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Tianjun Liao, and Thomas Stützle.
On the anytime behavior of IPOPCMAES.
In C. A. Coello Coello et al., editors, Parallel Problem
Solving from Nature, PPSN XII, volume 7491 of Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, pages 357–366. Springer, Heidelberg, 2012.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1395]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Tianjun Liao, and Thomas Stützle.
On the anytime behavior of IPOPCMAES: Supplementary
material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2012010/, 2012.
[ bib ]

[1396]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Arnaud Liefooghe, and Sébastien Verel.
Local Optimal Sets and Bounded Archiving on Multiobjective
NKLandscapes with Correlated Objectives.
In T. BartzBeielstein, J. Branke, B. Filipič, and J. Smith,
editors, PPSN 2014, volume 8672 of Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, pages 621–630. Springer, Heidelberg, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1397]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Franco Mascia, MarieEléonore Marmion, and
Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Design of a Hybrid Iterated Local Search for the
MultiMode ResourceConstrained MultiProject Scheduling Problem.
In G. Kendall, G. V. Berghe, and B. McCollum, editors,
Multidisciplinary International Conference on Scheduling: Theory and
Applications (MISTA 2013), pages 1–6, Gent, Belgium, 2013.
[ bib ]
https://hal.inria.fr/hal01094681

[1398]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle.
On the Design of ACO for the Biobjective Quadratic Assignment
Problem.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, 4th International Workshop, ANTS 2004, volume 3172 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 214–225. Springer, Heidelberg,
2004.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1399]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle.
Hybrid Populationbased Algorithms for the Biobjective
Quadratic Assignment Problem.
Technical Report AIDA–04–11, FG Intellektik, FB Informatik, TU
Darmstadt, December 2004.
Published in Journal of Mathematical Modelling and
Algorithms [1400].
[ bib ]

[1400]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle.
Hybrid Populationbased Algorithms for the Biobjective
Quadratic Assignment Problem.
Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms,
5(1):111–137, 2006.
[ bib 
DOI ]
We present variants of an ant colony optimization
(MOACO) algorithm and of an evolutionary algorithm
(SPEA2) for tackling multiobjective combinatorial
optimization problems, hybridized with an iterative
improvement algorithm and the robust tabu search
algorithm. The performance of the resulting hybrid
stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms is
experimentally investigated for the biobjective
quadratic assignment problem (bQAP) and compared
against repeated applications of the underlying
local search algorithms for several
scalarizations. The experiments consider structured
and unstructured bQAP instances with various degrees
of correlation between the flow matrices. We do a
systematic experimental analysis of the algorithms
using outperformance relations and the attainment
functions methodology to asses differences in the
performance of the algorithms. The experimental
results show the usefulness of the hybrid algorithms
if the available computation time is not too limited
and identify SPEA2 hybridized with very short tabu
search runs as the most promising variant.

[1401]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle.
Exploratory Analysis of Stochastic Local Search Algorithms in
Biobjective Optimization.
In T. BartzBeielstein, M. Chiarandini, L. Paquete, and M. Preuss,
editors, Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization
Algorithms, pages 209–222. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]
This chapter introduces two Perl programs that
implement graphical tools for exploring the
performance of stochastic local search algorithms
for biobjective optimization problems. These tools
are based on the concept of the empirical attainment
function (EAF), which describes the probabilistic
distribution of the outcomes obtained by a
stochastic algorithm in the objective space. In
particular, we consider the visualization of
attainment surfaces and differences between the
firstorder EAFs of the outcomes of two
algorithms. This visualization allows us to identify
certain algorithmic behaviors in a graphical way.
We explain the use of these visualization tools and
illustrate them with examples arising from
practice.

[1402]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle.
EAF Graphical Tools.
http://lopezibanez.eu/eaftools, 2010.
These tools are described in the book chapter “Exploratory
analysis of stochastic local search algorithms in biobjective
optimization” [1401].
[ bib ]
Please cite the book chapter, not this.

[1403]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Jérémie
DuboisLacoste, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari.
The irace package: User Guide.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2016004, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2016.
[ bib 
http ]

[1404]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Leslie Pérez Cáceres, and Thomas
Stützle.
irace: A Tool for the Automatic Configuration of Algorithms.
International Federation of Operational Research Societies
(IFORS) News, 14(2):30–32, June 2020.
[ bib 
http ]

[1405]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter.
Parallel Optimisation Of Pump Schedules With A ThreadSafe
Variant Of EPANET Toolkit.
In J. E. van Zyl, A. A. Ilemobade, and H. E. Jacobs, editors,
Proceedings of the 10th Annual Water Distribution Systems Analysis Conference
(WDSA 2008). ASCE, August 2008.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1406]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter.
Ant Colony Optimisation for the Optimal Control of Pumps in
Water Distribution Networks.
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE,
134(4):337–346, 2008.
[ bib 
DOI 
eprint ]
Reducing energy consumption of water distribution
networks has never had more significance than today. The greatest
energy savings can be obtained by careful scheduling of operation of
pumps. Schedules can be defined either implicitly, in terms of other
elements of the network such as tank levels, or explicitly by
specifying the time during which each pump is on/off. The
traditional representation of explicit schedules is a string of
binary values with each bit representing pump on/off status during a
particular time interval. In this paper a new explicit
representation is presented. It is based on time controlled
triggers, where the maximum number of pump switches is specified
beforehand. In this representation a pump schedule is divided into a
series of integers with each integer representing the number of
hours for which a pump is active/inactive. This reduces the number
of potential schedules (search space) compared to the binary
representation. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic
metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization problems that is
inspired by the foraging behavior of some species of ants. In this
paper, an application of the ACO framework was developed for the
optimal scheduling of pumps. The proposed representation was adapted
to an ant colony Optimization framework and solved for the optimal
pump schedules. Minimization of electrical cost was considered as
the objective, while satisfying system constraints. Instead of using
a penalty function approach for constraint violations, constraint
violations were ordered according to their importance and solutions
were ranked based on this order. The proposed approach was tested on
a small test network and on a large realworld network. Results are
compared with those obtained using a simple genetic algorithm based
on binary representation and a hybrid genetic algorithm that uses
levelbased triggers.

[1407]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter.
Representations and Evolutionary Operators for the Scheduling of
Pump Operations in Water Distribution Networks.
Evolutionary Computation, 19(3):429–467, 2011.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Reducing the energy consumption of water
distribution networks has never had more
significance. The greatest energy savings can be
obtained by carefully scheduling the operations of
pumps. Schedules can be defined either implicitly,
in terms of other elements of the network such as
tank levels, or explicitly by specifying the time
during which each pump is on/off. The traditional
representation of explicit schedules is a string of
binary values with each bit representing pump on/off
status during a particular time interval. In this
paper, we formally define and analyze two new
explicit representations based on timecontrolled
triggers, where the maximum number of pump switches
is established beforehand and the schedule may
contain less switches than the maximum. In these
representations, a pump schedule is divided into a
series of integers with each integer representing
the number of hours for which a pump is
active/inactive. This reduces the number of
potential schedules compared to the binary
representation, and allows the algorithm to operate
on the feasible region of the search space. We
propose evolutionary operators for these two new
representations. The new representations and their
corresponding operations are compared with the two
mostused representations in pump scheduling,
namely, binary representation and levelcontrolled
triggers. A detailed statistical analysis of the
results indicates which parameters have the greatest
effect on the performance of evolutionary
algorithms. The empirical results show that an
evolutionary algorithm using the proposed
representations improves over the results obtained
by a recent stateoftheart Hybrid Genetic
Algorithm for pump scheduling using levelcontrolled
triggers.

[1408]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter.
Solving Optimal Pump Control Problem using MaxMin Ant System.
In D. Thierens et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2007, volume 1, page 176. ACM
Press, New York, NY, 2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1409]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter.
Multiobjective Optimisation of the Pump Scheduling Problem
using SPEA2.
In Proceedings of the 2005 Congress on Evolutionary Computation
(CEC 2005), volume 1, pages 435–442. IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, September
2005.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1410]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter.
Optimal Pump Scheduling: Representation and Multiple
Objectives.
In D. A. Savic, G. A. Walters, R. King, and S. ThiamKhu, editors,
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computing and
Control for the Water Industry (CCWI 2005), volume 1, pages 117–122,
University of Exeter, UK, September 2005.
[ bib ]

[1411]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
An Analysis of Algorithmic Components for Multiobjective Ant
Colony Optimization: A Case Study on the Biobjective TSP.
In P. Collet, N. Monmarché, P. Legrand, M. Schoenauer, and
E. Lutton, editors, Artificial Evolution: 9th International Conference,
Evolution Artificielle, EA, 2009, volume 5975 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 134–145. Springer, Heidelberg, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1412]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Configuration of MultiObjective ACO Algorithms.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Swarm Intelligence, 7th
International Conference, ANTS 2010, volume 6234 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 95–106. Springer, Heidelberg, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]
In the last few years a significant number of ant
colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have been
proposed for tackling multiobjective optimization
problems. In this paper, we propose a software
framework that allows to instantiate the most
prominent multiobjective ACO (MOACO)
algorithms. More importantly, the flexibility of
this MOACO framework allows the application of
automatic algorithm configuration techniques. The
experimental results presented in this paper show
that such an automatic configuration of MOACO
algorithms is highly desirable, given that our
automatically configured algorithms clearly
outperform the best performing MOACO algorithms that
have been proposed in the literature. As far as we
are aware, this paper is also the first to apply
automatic algorithm configuration techniques to
multiobjective stochastic local search algorithms.

[1413]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
The impact of design choices of multiobjective ant colony
optimization algorithms on performance: An experimental study on the
biobjective TSP.
In M. Pelikan and J. Branke, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic
and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2010, pages 71–78. ACM
Press, New York, NY, 2010.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Over the last few years, there have been a number of
proposals of ant colony optimization (ACO)
algorithms for tackling multiobjective combinatorial
optimization problems. These proposals adapt ACO
concepts in various ways, for example, some use
multiple pheromone matrices and multiple heuristic
matrices and others use multiple ant colonies.
In
this article, we carefully examine several of the
most prominent of these proposals. In particular, we
identify commonalities among the approaches by
recasting the original formulation of the algorithms
in different terms. For example, several proposals
described in terms of multiple colonies can be cast
equivalently using a single ant colony, where ants
use different weights for aggregating the pheromone
and/or the heuristic information. We study
algorithmic choices for the various proposals and we
identify previously undetected tradeoffs in their
performance.

[1414]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
The impact of design choices of multiobjective ant colony
optimization algorithms on performance: An experimental study on the
biobjective TSP.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2010003/, 2010.
Supplementary material of [1413].
[ bib ]

[1415]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
The Automatic Design of MultiObjective Ant Colony Optimization
Algorithms: Supplementary material, 2011.
[ bib 
http ]

[1416]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
An experimental analysis of design choices of multiobjective
ant colony optimization algorithms: Supplementary material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2012006/, 2012.
[ bib ]

[1417]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
An experimental analysis of design choices of multiobjective
ant colony optimization algorithms.
Swarm Intelligence, 6(3):207–232, 2012.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]

[1418]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
The Automatic Design of MultiObjective Ant Colony Optimization
Algorithms.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 16(6):861–875,
2012.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Multiobjective optimization problems are problems with several,
typically conflicting criteria for evaluating solutions. Without
any a priori preference information, the Pareto optimality
principle establishes a partial order among solutions, and the
output of the algorithm becomes a set of nondominated solutions
rather than a single one. Various ant colony optimization (ACO)
algorithms have been proposed in recent years for solving such
problems. These multiobjective ACO (MOACO) algorithms exhibit
different design choices for dealing with the particularities of
the multiobjective context. This paper proposes a formulation of
algorithmic components that suffices to describe most MOACO
algorithms proposed so far. This formulation also shows that
existing MOACO algorithms often share equivalent design choices
but they are described in different terms. Moreover, this
formulation is synthesized into a flexible algorithmic framework,
from which not only existing MOACO algorithms may be
instantiated, but also combinations of components that were never
studied in the literature. In this sense, this paper goes beyond
proposing a new MOACO algorithm, but it rather introduces a
family of MOACO algorithms. The flexibility of the proposed MOACO
framework facilitates the application of automatic algorithm
configuration techniques. The experimental results presented in
this paper show that the automatically configured MOACO framework
outperforms the MOACO algorithms that inspired the framework
itself. This paper is also among the first to apply automatic
algorithm configuration techniques to multiobjective algorithms.

[1419]

Manuel LópezIbáñez and Thomas Stützle.
Automatically Improving the Anytime Behaviour of Optimisation
Algorithms.
European Journal of Operational Research, 235(3):569–582,
2014.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]
Optimisation algorithms with good anytime behaviour try to
return as highquality solutions as possible independently of
the computation time allowed. Designing algorithms with good
anytime behaviour is a difficult task, because performance is
often evaluated subjectively, by plotting the tradeoff curve
between computation time and solution quality. Yet, the
tradeoff curve may be modelled also as a set of mutually
nondominated, biobjective points. Using this model, we
propose to combine an automatic configuration tool and the
hypervolume measure, which assigns a single quality measure
to a nondominated set. This allows us to improve the anytime
behaviour of optimisation algorithms by means of
automatically finding algorithmic configurations that produce
the best nondominated sets. Moreover, the recently proposed
weighted hypervolume measure is used here to incorporate the
decisionmaker's preferences into the automatic tuning
procedure. We report on the improvements reached when
applying the proposed method to two relevant scenarios: (i)
the design of parameter variation strategies for MAXMIN Ant
System and (ii) the tuning of the anytime behaviour of SCIP,
an opensource mixed integer programming solver with more
than 200 parameters.

[1420]

Manuel LópezIbáñez, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo.
Ant Colony Optimization: A ComponentWise Overview.
In R. Martí, P. M. Pardalos, and M. G. C. Resende, editors,
Handbook of Heuristics, pages 371–407. Springer International Publishing,
2018.
[ bib 
DOI 
supplementary material ]

[1421]

Eunice LÃ³pezCamacho, Hugo TerashimaMarin, Peter Ross, and Gabriela Ochoa.
A unified hyperheuristic framework for solving bin packing
problems.
Expert Systems with Applications, 41(15):6876–6889, 2014.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1422]

Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Multiobjective Ant Colony Optimization.
Diploma thesis, Intellectics Group, Computer Science Department,
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany, 2004.
[ bib ]

[1423]

Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Operational Optimisation of Water Distribution Networks.
PhD thesis, School of Engineering and the Built Environment,
Edinburgh Napier University, UK, 2009.
[ bib 
http ]

[1424]

Ilya Loshchilov, Marc Schoenauer, and Michèle Sebag.
Alternative Restart Strategies for CMAES.
In C. A. Coello Coello et al., editors, Parallel Problem
Solving from Nature, PPSN XII, volume 7491 of Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, pages 296–305. Springer, Heidelberg, 2012.
[ bib 
DOI ]

[1425]

A. V. Lotov and Kaisa Miettinen.
Visualizing the Pareto Frontier.
In J. Branke, K. Deb, K. Miettinen, and R. Slowiński, editors,
Multiobjective Optimization: Interactive and Evolutionary Approaches,
volume 5252 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 213–243.
Springer, Heidelberg, 2008.
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Samir Loudni and Patrice Boizumault.
Combining VNS with constraint programming for solving anytime
optimization problems.
European Journal of Operational Research, 191:705–735, 2008.
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[1427]

Helena R. Lourenço, Olivier Martin, and Thomas Stützle.
Iterated Local Search.
In F. Glover and G. A. Kochenberger, editors, Handbook of
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[1428]

Helena R. Lourenço, Olivier Martin, and Thomas Stützle.
Iterated Local Search: Framework and Applications.
In M. Gendreau and J.Y. Potvin, editors, Handbook of
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[1429]

Helena R. Lourenço, Olivier Martin, and Thomas Stützle.
Iterated Local Search: Framework and Applications.
In M. Gendreau and J.Y. Potvin, editors, Handbook of
Metaheuristics, volume 272 of International Series in Operations
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[1430]

Helena R. Lourenço.
JobShop Scheduling: Computational Study of Local Search and
LargeStep Optimization Methods.
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[1431]

Antonio Lova and Pilar Tormos.
Analysis of Scheduling Schemes and Heuristic Rules Performance
in ResourceConstrained Multiproject Scheduling.
Annals of Operations Research, 102(14):263–286, February
2001.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Frequently, the availability of resources assigned
to a project is limited and not sufficient to
execute all the concurrent activities. In this
situation, decision making about their schedule is
necessary. Many times this schedule supposes an
increase in the project completion
time. Additionally, companies commonly manage
various projects simultaneously, sharing a pool of
renewable resources. Given these resource
constraints, we often can only apply heuristic
methods to solve the scheduling problem. In this
work the effect of the schedule generation schemes 
serial or parallel  and priority rules  MINLFT,
MINSLK, MAXTWK, SASP or FCFS  with two
approaches  multiproject and singleproject  are
analysed. The time criteria considered are the mean
project delay and the multiproject duration
increase. Through an extensive computational study,
results show that with the parallel scheduling
generation scheme and the multiproject approach the
project manager can obtain a good multiproject
schedule with the time criterion selected:
minimising mean project delay or minimising
multiproject duration increase. New heuristics 
based on priority rules with a twophase approach 
that outperform classical ones are proposed to
minimise mean project delay with a multiproject
approach. Finally, the best heuristics analysed are
evaluated together with a representative sample of
commercial project management software.
Keywords: Combinatorics, heuristic based on priority rules,
Multiproject scheduling, Operation
Research/Decision Theory, Project management,
project management software, Resource allocation,
Theory of Computation

[1432]

Antonio Lova, Pilar Tormos, Mariamar Cervantes, and Federico Barber.
An efficient hybrid genetic algorithm for scheduling projects
with resource constraints and multiple execution modes.
International Journal of Production Economics, 117(2):302–316,
2009.
[ bib 
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Multimode Resource Constrained Project Scheduling
Problem (MRCPSP) aims at finding the start times
and execution modes for the activities of a project
that optimize a given objective function while
verifying a set of precedence and resource
constraints. In this paper, we focus on this problem
and develop a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (MMHGA) to
solve it. Its main contributions are the mode
assignment procedure, the fitness function and the
use of a very efficient improving method. Its
performance is demonstrated by extensive
computational results obtained on a set of standard
instances and against the best currently available
algorithms.
Keywords: genetic algorithm, multimode resourceconstrained
project scheduling

[1433]

Manuel Lozano, Fred Glover, Carlos GarcíaMartínez, Francisco J.
Rodríguez, and Rafael Martí.
Tabu Search with Strategic Oscillation for the Quadratic Minimum
Spanning Tree.
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Manuel Lozano, Daniel Molina, and Carlos GarcíaMartínez.
Iterated Greedy for the Maximum Diversity Problem.
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Zhipeng Lü, Fred Glover, and JinKao Hao.
A hybrid metaheuristic approach to solving the UBQP problem.
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2010.
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M. Lundy and A. Mees.
Convergence of an Annealing Algorithm.
Mathematical Programming, 34(1):111–124, 1986.
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Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem.
Twophase Pareto local search for the biobjective traveling
salesman problem.
Journal of Heuristics, 16(3):475–510, 2010.
[ bib 
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In this work, we present a method, called TwoPhase
Pareto Local Search, to find a good approximation of the
efficient set of the biobjective traveling salesman
problem. In the first phase of the method, an initial
population composed of a good approximation of the extreme
supported efficient solutions is generated. We use as second
phase a Pareto Local Search method applied to each solution
of the initial population. We show that using the combination
of these two techniques: good initial population generation
plus Pareto Local Search gives better results than
stateoftheart algorithms. Two other points are introduced:
the notion of ideal set and a simple way to produce
nearefficient solutions of multiobjective problems, by using
an efficient singleobjective solver with a data perturbation
technique.

[1438]

Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem.
The multiobjective traveling salesman problem: A survey and a
new approach.
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Studies in Computational Intelligence, pages 119–141. Springer, 2010.
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[1439]

Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem.
The multiobjective multidimensional knapsack problem: a survey
and a new approach.
Arxiv preprint arXiv:1007.4063, 2010.
[ bib ]
Published as [1440]

[1440]

Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem.
The multiobjective multidimensional knapsack problem: a survey
and a new approach.
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19(4):495–520, 2012.
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[1441]

Thibaut Lust and Andrzej Jaszkiewicz.
Speedup techniques for solving largescale biobjective TSP.
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Keywords: Multiobjective combinatorial optimization, Hybrid
metaheuristics, TSP, Local search, Speedup techniques

[1442]

C. von Lücken, Benjamín Barán, and Carlos Brizuela.
A survey on multiobjective evolutionary algorithms for
manyobjective problems.
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[1443]

Qingfu Zhang.
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Marlos C. Machado, Marc G. Bellemare, Erik Talvitie, Joel Veness, Matthew
Hausknecht, and Michael Bowling.
Revisiting the Arcade Learning Environment: Evaluation
Protocols and Open Problems for General Agents.
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 61(1):523–562,
January 2018.
[ bib ]
The Arcade Learning Environment (ALE) is an evaluation
platform that poses the challenge of building AI agents with
general competency across dozens of Atari 2600 games. It
supports a variety of different problem settings and it has
been receiving increasing attention from the scientific
community, leading to some highpro_le success stories such
as the much publicized Deep QNetworks (DQN). In this article
we take a big picture look at how the ALE is being used by
the research community. We show how diverse the evaluation
methodologies in the ALE have become with time, and highlight
some key concerns when evaluating agents in the ALE. We use
this discussion to present some methodological best practices
and provide new benchmark results using these best
practices. To further the progress in the field, we introduce
a new version of the ALE that supports multiple game modes
and provides a form of stochasticity we call sticky
actions. We conclude this big picture look by revisiting
challenges posed when the ALE was introduced, summarizing the
stateoftheart in various problems and highlighting
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[1445]

Gunther Mäckle, Dragan A. Savic, and Godfrey A. Walters.
Application of Genetic Algorithms to Pump Scheduling for Water
Supply.
In Genetic Algorithms in Engineering Systems: Innovations and
Applications, GALESIA'95, volume 414, pages 400–405, Sheffield, UK,
September 1995. IEE Conference Publication.
[ bib 
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A simple Genetic Algorithm has been applied to the
scheduling of multiple pumping units in a water
supply system with the objective of minimising the
overall cost of the pumping operation, taking
advantage of storage capacity in the system and the
availability of off peak electricity tariffs. A
simple example shows that the method is easy to
apply and has produced encouraging preliminary
results

[1446]

Nateri K. Madavan.
Multiobjective optimization using a Pareto differential
evolution approach.
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[1447]

Sam Madden.
From Databases to Big Data.
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[1448]

M. Mahdavi, M. Fesanghary, and E. Damangir.
An improved harmony search algorithm for solving optimization
problems.
Applied Mathematics and Computation, 188(2):1567–1579, 2007.
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This paper develops an Improved harmony search (IHS)
algorithm for solving optimization problems. IHS employs a
novel method for generating new solution vectors that
enhances accuracy and convergence rate of harmony search (HS)
algorithm. In this paper the impacts of constant parameters
on harmony search algorithm are discussed and a strategy for
tuning these parameters is presented. The IHS algorithm has
been successfully applied to various benchmarking and
standard engineering optimization problems. Numerical results
reveal that the proposed algorithm can find better solutions
when compared to HS and other heuristic or deterministic
methods and is a powerful search algorithm for various
engineering optimization problems.
Keywords: Global optimization, Heuristics, Harmony search algorithm,
Mathematical programming

[1449]

Guilherme B. Mainieri and Débora P. Ronconi.
New heuristics for total tardiness minimization in a flexible
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Holger R. Maier, Angus R. Simpson, Aaron C. Zecchin, Wai Kuan Foong, Kuang Yeow
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Ant Colony Optimization for Design of Water Distribution
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Yuri Malitsky and Meinolf Sellmann.
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nonmodelbased portfolio generation.
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reassignment problem.
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Exact and Approximate Nondeterministic TreeSearch Procedures
for the Quadratic Assignment Problem.
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Franco Mascia, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Jérémie DuboisLacoste,
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Renaud Masson, Thibaut Vidal, Julien Michallet, Puca Huachi Vaz Penna,
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Michael Maur, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas Stützle.
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Ross M. McConnell, Kurt Mehlhorn, Stefan Näher, and Pascal Schweitzer.
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A certifying algorithm is an algorithm that produces, with
each output, a certificate or witness (easytoverify proof)
that the particular output has not been compromised by a
bug. A user of a certifying algorithm inputs x, receives the
output y and the certificate w, and then checks, either
manually or by use of a program, that w proves that y is a
correct output for input x. In this way, he/she can be sure
of the correctness of the output without having to trust the
algorithm. We put forward the thesis that certifying
algorithms are much superior to noncertifying algorithms,
and that for complex algorithmic tasks, only certifying
algorithms are satisfactory. Acceptance of this thesis would
lead to a change of how algorithms are taught and how
algorithms are researched. The widespread use of certifying
algorithms would greatly enhance the reliability of
algorithmic software. We survey the state of the art in
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The scheduling of pumps for clean water distribution
is a partially discrete nonlinear problem with many
variables. The scheduling method described in this
paper typically produces costs within 1% of a
linear programbased solution, and can incorporate
realistic nonlinear costs that may be hard to
incorporate in linear programming
formulations. These costs include pump switching and
maximum demand charges. A simplified model is
derived from a standard hydraulic simulator. An
initial schedule is produced by a descent
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solutions in a few minutes. Iterative recalibration
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Although experimental studies have been widely applied to the
investigation of algorithm performance, very little attention
has been given to experimental method in this area. This is
unfortunate, since much can be done to improve the quality of
the data obtained; often, much improvement may be needed for
the data to be useful. This paper gives a tutorial discussion
of two aspects of good experimental technique: the use of
variance reduction techniques and simulation speedups in
algorithm studies. In an illustrative study, application of
variance reduction techniques produces a decrease in variance
by a factor 1000 in one case, giving a dramatic improvement
in the precision of experimental results. Furthermore, the
complexity of the simulation program is improved from
Θ(m n/H_{n}) to Θ(m + n logn) (where m is
typically much larger than n), giving a much faster
simulation program and therefore more data per unit of
computation time. The general application of variance
reduction techniques is also discussed for a variety of
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theory and its background. This book is intended for both
researchers and students in the areas of (applied)
mathematics, engineering, economics, operations research and
management science; it is meant for both professionals and
practitioners in many different fields of application. The
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interest among practitioners. Learning in an ant
algorithm is achieved by using an artificial
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metaheuristic. Many versions of the algorithm are
found in literature, the main distinction among them
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trail. Nevertheless, few of them seek to perfect
learning by modifying the internal structure of the
trail. In this paper, a new pheromone trail
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Progress in science relies in part on generating hypotheses
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In this research, we proposed to build an automated framework
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Journal of Heuristics, 19(5):819–844, 2013.
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Randal S. Olson, Ryan J. Urbanowicz, Peter C. Andrews, Nicole A. Lavender,
La Creis Kidd, and Jason H. Moore.
Automating Biomedical Data Science Through TreeBased Pipeline
Optimization.
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Evolving Evolutionary Algorithms Using Linear Genetic
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Michael O'Neill and Conor Ryan.
Grammatical Evolution.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 5(4):349–358,
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Jeffrey E. Orosz and Sheldon H. Jacobson.
Analysis of Static Simulated Annealing Algorithms.
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Avi Ostfeld and Elad Salomons.
Optimal Scheduling of Pumping and Chlorine Injections under
Unsteady Hydraulics.
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Transitions In Water And Environmental Resources Management, pages 1–9,
July 2004.
[ bib ]
This paper describes the methodology and application
of a genetic algorithm (GA) scheme, tailormade to
EPANET for simultaneously optimizing the scheduling
of existing pumping and booster disinfection units,
as well as the design of new disinfection booster
chlorination stations, under unsteady
hydraulics. The objective is to minimize the total
cost of operating the pumping units and the chlorine
booster operation and design for a selected
operational time horizon, while delivering the
consumers required water quantities, at acceptable
pressures and chlorine residual concentrations. The
decision variables, for each of the time steps that
encompass the total operational time horizon,
include: the scheduling of the pumping units,
settings of the water distribution system control
valves, and the mass injection rates at each of the
booster chlorination stations. The constraints are
domain heads and chlorine concentrations at the
consumer nodes, maximum injection rates at the
chlorine injection stations, maximum allowable
amounts of water withdraws at the sources, and
returning at the end of the operational time horizon
to a prescribed total volume in the tanks. The model
is demonstrated through an example application.

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Gül Özerol and Esra Karasakal.
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Meltem Öztürk, Alexis Tsoukiàs, and Philippe Vincke.
Preference Modelling.
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Manfred Padberg and Giovanni Rinaldi.
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symmetric traveling salesman problems.
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Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Speeding up Local Search for the Insert Neighborhood in the
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[1686]

Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Design of Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms
for Permutation Flowshop Problems.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2018005, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, April 2018.
[ bib 
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[1687]

Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Design of Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms
for Permutation Flowshop Problems: Supplementary Material.
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Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Design of Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms
for Permutation Flowshop Problems.
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[1689]

Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic design of hybrid stochastic local search algorithms
for permutation flowshop problems with additional constraints.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2018002/, 2019.
[ bib ]

[1690]

Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Evaluating the impact of grammar complexity in automatic
algorithm design.
International Transactions in Operational Research, pages
1–26, 2020.
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[1691]

Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic design of hybrid stochastic local search algorithms
for permutation flowshop problems with additional constraints.
Operations Research Perspectives, 8, 2021.
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[1692]

Federico Pagnozzi.
Automatic Design of Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms.
PhD thesis, IRIDIA, École polytechnique, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2019.
[ bib ]
Supervised by Thomas Stützle

[1693]

Daniel Palhazi Cuervo, Peter Goos, Kenneth Sörensen, and Emely
Arráiz.
An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing
Problem with Backhauls.
European Journal of Operational Research, 237(2):454–464,
2014.
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Gintaras Palubeckis.
Iterated tabu search for the unconstrained binary quadratic
optimization problem.
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QuanKe Pan and Rubén Ruiz.
Local Search Methods for the Flowshop Scheduling Problem with
Flowtime Minimization.
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[1696]

QuanKe Pan and Rubén Ruiz.
A Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Permutation Flowshop
Heuristics to Minimize Flowtime.
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QuanKe Pan, Rubén Ruiz, and Pedro AlfaroFernández.
Iterated Search Methods for Earliness and Tardiness Minimization
in Hybrid Flowshops with Due Windows.
Computers & Operations Research, 80:50–60, 2017.
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[1698]

QuanKe Pan, Mehmet Fatih Tasgetiren, and YunChia Liang.
A Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Permutation
Flowshop Scheduling Problem.
Computers and Industrial Engineering, 55(4):795 – 816, 2008.
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QuanKe Pan, Ling Wang, and BaoHua Zhao.
An improved iterated greedy algorithm for the nowait flow shop
scheduling problem with makespan criterion.
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38(78):778–786, 2008.
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[1700]

Sinno Jialin Pan and Qiang Yang.
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[1703]

Luís Paquete.
Algoritmos Evolutivos Multiobjectivo para Afectação de
Recursos e sua Aplicação à Geração de Horários em
Universidades (Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms for Resource
Allocation and their Application to University Timetabling).
Master's thesis, University of Algarve, 2001.
In Portuguese.
[ bib ]
The aim of this study is the application of
multiobjective evolutionary algorithms to resource
allocation problems, such as university examination
timetabling and course timetabling
problems. Usually, these problems are characterized
by multiple conflicting objectives. A multiobjective
formalization of these problems is presented, based
on goals and priorities. Various aspects of
evolutionary algorithms are proposed and studied for
these problems, particulary, selection methods and
types and parameters of mutation operator. The
choice of both representation and operators is made
so as not to favour excessively certain objectives
with respect to others at the level of the
exploration mechanism. A comparative study of
performance is presented for the proposed algorithms
by means of statistical inference, based on real
problems of the University of Algarve. The notion of
attainment functions is used as a base for the
assessment of performance of multiobjective
evolutionary algorithms. Finally, the evolution of
the solution cost during the runs is analysed by
means of attainment functions, as well.

[1704]

Luís Paquete.
Stochastic Local Search Algorithms for Multiobjective
Combinatorial Optimization: Methods and Analysis.
PhD thesis, FB Informatik, TU Darmstadt, Germany, 2005.
[ bib ]

[1705]

Luís Paquete, Marco Chiarandini, and Thomas Stützle.
Pareto Local Optimum Sets in the Biobjective Traveling
Salesman Problem: An Experimental Study.
In X. Gandibleux, M. Sevaux, K. Sörensen, and V. T'Kindt,
editors, Metaheuristics for Multiobjective Optimisation, volume 535 of
Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, pages 177–199.
Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004.
[ bib 
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In this article, we study Pareto local optimum sets for the
biobjective Traveling Salesman Problem applying
straightforward extensions of local search algorithms for the
single objective case. The performance of the local search
algorithms is illustrated by experimental results obtained
for well known benchmark instances and comparisons to methods
from literature. In fact, a 3opt local search is able to
compete with the best performing metaheuristics in terms of
solution quality. Finally, we also present an empirical study
of the features of the solutions found by 3opt on a set of
randomly generated instances. The results indicate the
existence of several clusters of nearoptimal solutions that
are separated by only a few edges.
Keywords: Pareto local search, PLS

[1706]

Luís Paquete, Carlos M. Fonseca, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
An optimal algorithm for a special case of Klee's measure
problem in three dimensions.
Technical Report CSIRTI01/2006, CSI, Universidade do Algarve,
2006.
Superseded by paper in IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary
Computation [206].
[ bib ]
The measure of the region dominated by (the maxima
of) a set of n points in the positive dorthant
has been proposed as an indicator of performance in
multiobjective optimization, known as the
hypervolume indicator, and the problem of computing
it efficiently is attracting increasing
attention. In this report, this problem is
formulated as a special case of Klee's measure
problem in d dimensions, which immediately
establishes O(n^{d/2}logn) as a, possibly
conservative, upper bound on the required
computation time. Then, an O(n log n) algorithm
for the 3dimensional version of this special case
is constructed, based on an existing dimensionsweep
algorithm for the related maxima problem. Finally,
O(n log n) is shown to remain a lower bound on the
time required by the hypervolume indicator for
d>1, which attests the optimality of the algorithm
proposed.
Proof of Theorem 3.1 is incorrect

[1707]

Luís Paquete, Tommaso Schiavinotto, and Thomas Stützle.
On Local Optima in Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization
Problems.
Annals of Operations Research, 156:83–97, 2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]
In this article, local optimality in multiobjective
combinatorial optimization is used as a baseline for
the design and analysis of two iterative improvement
algorithms. Both algorithms search in a neighborhood
that is defined on a collection of sets of feasible
solutions and their acceptance criterion is based on
outperformance relations. Proofs of the soundness
and completeness of these algorithms are given.
Keywords: Pareto local search, PLS

[1708]

Luís Paquete and Thomas Stützle.
A study of stochastic local search algorithms for the
biobjective QAP with correlated flow matrices.
European Journal of Operational Research, 169(3):943–959,
2006.
[ bib ]

[1709]

Luís Paquete and Thomas Stützle.
Clusters of nondominated solutions in multiobjective
combinatorial optimization: An experimental analysis.
In V. Barichard, M. Ehrgott, X. Gandibleux, and V. T'Kindt, editors,
Multiobjective Programming and Goal Programming: Theoretical Results and
Practical Applications, volume 618 of Lecture Notes in Economics and
Mathematical Systems, pages 69–77. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2009.
[ bib 
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[1710]

Luís Paquete and Thomas Stützle.
Design and analysis of stochastic local search for the
multiobjective traveling salesman problem.
Computers & Operations Research, 36(9):2619–2631, 2009.
[ bib 
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[1711]

Luís Paquete and Thomas Stützle.
An Experimental Investigation of Iterated Local Search for
Coloring Graphs.
In S. Cagnoni et al., editors, Applications of Evolutionary
Computing, Proceedings of EvoWorkshops 2002, volume 2279 of Lecture
Notes in Computer Science, pages 122–131. Springer, Heidelberg, 2002.
[ bib ]

[1712]

Luís Paquete and Thomas Stützle.
A TwoPhase Local Search for the Biobjective Traveling Salesman
Problem.
In C. M. Fonseca, P. J. Fleming, E. Zitzler, K. Deb, and L. Thiele,
editors, Evolutionary Multicriterion Optimization, EMO 2003, volume
2632 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 479–493. Springer,
Heidelberg, 2003.
[ bib ]

[1713]

Luís Paquete, Thomas Stützle, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
On the design and analysis of SLS algorithms for
multiobjective combinatorial optimization problems.
Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2005029, IRIDIA, Université Libre de
Bruxelles, Belgium, 2005.
[ bib 
http ]
Effective Stochastic Local Search (SLS) algorithms
can be seen as being composed of several algorithmic
components, each of which plays some specific role
with respect to overall performance. In this
article, we explore the application of experimental
design techniques to analyze the effect of different
choices for these algorithmic components on SLS
algorithms applied to Multiobjective Combinatorial
Optimization Problems that are solved in terms of
Pareto optimality. This analysis is done using the
example application of SLS algorithms to the
biobjective Quadratic Assignment Problem and we show
also that the same choices for algorithmic
components can lead to different behavior in
dependence of various instance features, such as the
structure of input data and the correlation between
objectives.

[1714]

Luís Paquete, Thomas Stützle, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Towards the Empirical Analysis of SLS Algorithms for
Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization Problems through Experimental
Design.
In K. F. Doerner, M. Gendreau, P. Greistorfer, W. J. Gutjahr, R. F.
Hartl, and M. Reimann, editors, 6th Metaheuristics International
Conference (MIC 2005), pages 739–746, Vienna, Austria, 2005.
[ bib ]
Stochastic Local Search (SLS) algorithms for
Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization Problems
(MCOPs) typically involve the selection and
parameterization of many algorithm components whose
role with respect to their overall performance and
relation to certain instance features is often not
clear. In this abstract, we use a modular approach
for the design of SLS algorithms for MCOPs defined
in terms of Pareto optimality and we present an
extensive analysis of SLS algorithms through
experimental design techniques, where each algorithm
component is considered a factor. The experimental
analysis is based on a sound experimental
methodology for analyzing the output of algorithms
for MCOPs. We show that different choices for
algorithm components can lead to different behavior
in dependence of various instance features.

[1715]

Luís Paquete, Thomas Stützle, and Manuel LópezIbáñez.
Using experimental design to analyze stochastic local search
algorithms for multiobjective problems.
In K. F. Doerner, M. Gendreau, P. Greistorfer, W. J. Gutjahr, R. F.
Hartl, and M. Reimann, editors, Metaheuristics: Progress in Complex
Systems Optimization, volume 39 of Operations Research / Computer
Science Interfaces, pages 325–344. Springer, New York, NY, 2007.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Stochastic Local Search (SLS) algorithms can be seen as being
composed of several algorithmic components, each playing some
specific role with respect to overall performance. This
article explores the application of experimental design
techniques to analyze the effect of components of SLS
algorithms for Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization
problems, in particular for the Biobjective Quadratic
Assignment Problem. The analysis shows that there exists a
strong dependence between the choices for these components
and various instance features, such as the structure of the
input data and the correlation between the objectives.
PostConference Proceedings of the 6th Metaheuristics
International Conference (MIC 2005)

[1716]

S. N. Parragh, Karl F. Doerner, Richard F. Hartl, and Xavier Gandibleux.
A heuristic twophase solution approach for the multiobjective
dialaride problem.
Networks, 54(4):227–242, 2009.
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Rebecca Parsons and Mark Johnson.
A Case Study in Experimental Design Applied to Genetic
Algorithms with Applications to DNA Sequence Assembly.
American Journal of Mathematical and Management Sciences,
17(34):369–396, 1997.
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MoonWon Park and YeongDae Kim.
A systematic procedure for setting parameters in simulated
annealing algorithms.
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R. S. Parpinelli, H. S. Lopes, and A. A. Freitas.
Data Mining with an Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm.
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6(4):321–332,
2002.
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R. O. Parreiras and J. A. Vascocelos.
A multiplicative version of PROMETHEE II applied to
multiobjective optimization problems.
European Journal of Operational Research, 183:729–740, 2007.
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Gerald Paul.
Comparative performance of tabu search and simulated annealing
heuristics for the quadratic assignment problem.
Operations Research Letters, 38(6):577–581, 2010.
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J Paulli.
A computational comparison of simulated annealing and tabu
search applied to the quadratic assignment problem.
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85–102. Springer, 1993.
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Lucas Marcondes Pavelski, Myriam Regattieri Delgado, and MarieEléonore
Kessaci.
MetaLearning on Flowshop Using Fitness Landscape Analysis.
In M. LópezIbáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle,
editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
Conference, GECCO 2019, pages 925–933, New York, NY, 2019. ACM Press.
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[1724]

Judea Pearl.
Heuristics: Intelligent Search Strategies for Computer Problem
Solving.
AddisonWesley, Reading, MA, 1984.
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[1725]

Glen S. Peace.
Taguchi Methods: A HandsOn Approach.
AddisonWesley, 1993.
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Judea Pearl and Elias Bareinboim.
Transportability of causal and statistical relations: A formal
approach.
In W. Burgard and D. Roth, editors, Proceedings of the AAAI
Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pages 247–254. AAAI Press, 2011.
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[1727]

Judea Pearl and Dana Mackenzie.
The book of why: the new science of cause and effect.
Basic books, 2018.
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[1728]

Judea Pearl.
Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference.
Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 2009.
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[1729]

Judea Pearl.
The seven tools of causal inference, with reflections on machine
learning.
Communications of the ACM, 62(3):54–60, 2019.
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Juan A. Pedraza, Carlos GarcíaMartínez, Alberto Cano, and Sebastián
Ventura.
Classification Rule Mining with Iterated Greedy.
In M. M. Polycarpou, A. C. P. L. F. de Carvalho, J. Pan, M. Wozniak,
H. Quintián, and E. Corchado, editors, Hybrid Artificial
Intelligence Systems  9th International Conference, HAIS 2014, Salamanca,
Spain, June 1113, 2014. Proceedings, volume 8480 of Lecture Notes in
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Martín Pedemonte, Sergio Nesmachnow, and Héctor Cancela.
A survey on parallel ant colony optimization.
Applied Soft Computing, 11(8):5181–5197, 2011.
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Paola Pellegrini and Mauro Birattari.
Implementation Effort and Performance.
In T. Stützle, M. Birattari, and H. H. Hoos, editors,
Engineering Stochastic Local Search Algorithms. Designing, Implementing and
Analyzing Effective Heuristics. SLS 2007, volume 4638 of Lecture Notes
in Computer Science, pages 31–45. Springer, Heidelberg, 2007.
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[1733]

Paola Pellegrini, Mauro Birattari, and Thomas Stützle.
A Critical Analysis of Parameter Adaptation in Ant Colony
Optimization.
Swarm Intelligence, 6(1):23–48, 2012.
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Paola Pellegrini, L. Castelli, and R. Pesenti.
Metaheuristic algorithms for the simultaneous slot allocation
problem.
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2012.
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Paola Pellegrini, D. Favaretto, and E. Moretti.
On MaxMin Ant System's Parameters.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm
Intelligence, 5th International Workshop, ANTS 2006, volume 4150 of
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2006.
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Paola Pellegrini, D. Favaretto, and E. Moretti.
Exploration in stochastic algorithms: An application on
MaxMin Ant System.
In N. Krasnogor, B. MeliÃ¡nBatista, J. A. MorenoPÃ©rez, J. M.
MorenoVega, and D. A. Pelta, editors, Nature Inspired Cooperative
Strategies for Optimization (NICSO 2008), volume 236 of Studies in
Computational Intelligence, pages 1–13. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2009.
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[1737]

Paola Pellegrini, Franco Mascia, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari.
On the Sensitivity of Reactive Tabu Search to its
Metaparameters.
Soft Computing, 18(11):2177–2190, 2014.
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[1738]

Paola Pellegrini, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari.
Offline vs. Online Tuning: A Study on MaxMin Ant System for
the TSP.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Swarm Intelligence, 7th
International Conference, ANTS 2010, volume 6234 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 239–250. Springer, Heidelberg, 2010.
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[1739]

Puca Huachi Vaz Penna, Anand Subramanian, and Luiz Satoru Ochi.
An Iterated Local Search Heuristic for the Heterogeneous Fleet
Vehicle Routing Problem.
Journal of Heuristics, 19(2):201–232, 2013.
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[1740]

Jeffrey M. Perkel.
Challenge to scientists: does your tenyearold code still run?
Nature, 584:556–658, 2020.
[ bib 
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https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586020024627
Keywords: reproducibility; software engineering; ReScience C; Ten Years
Reproducibility Challenge; code reusability

[1741]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Bernd Bischl, and Thomas Stützle.
Evaluating random forest models for irace.
In P. A. N. Bosman, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and
Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion, GECCO Companion 2017, pages
1146–1153, New York, NY, 2017. ACM Press.
[ bib 
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[1742]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Holger H. Hoos,
and Thomas Stützle.
An Experimental Study of Adaptive Capping in
irace.
In R. Battiti, D. E. Kvasov, and Y. D. Sergeyev, editors,
Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 11th International Conference, LION
11, volume 10556 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 235–250.
Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2017.
[ bib 
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supplementary material ]

[1743]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Manuel LópezIbáñez, Holger H. Hoos,
and Thomas Stützle.
An experimental study of adaptive capping in irace:
Supplementary material.
http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2016007/, 2017.
[ bib ]

[1744]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Ant Colony Optimization on a Budget of 1000.
In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Swarm Intelligence, 9th
International Conference, ANTS 2014, volume 8667 of Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, pages 50–61. Springer, Heidelberg, 2014.
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[1745]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
An Analysis of Parameters of irace.
In C. Blum and G. Ochoa, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2014 –
14th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial
Optimization, volume 8600 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages
37–48. Springer, Heidelberg, 2014.
[ bib 
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[1746]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Ant Colony Optimization on a Budget of 1000: Supplementary
material, 2015.
[ bib 
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[1747]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Thomas
Stützle.
Ant colony optimization on a limited budget of evaluations.
Swarm Intelligence, 9(23):103–124, 2015.
[ bib 
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supplementary material ]

[1748]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Federico Pagnozzi, Alberto Franzin, and Thomas
Stützle.
Automatic Configuration of GCC Using irace.
In E. Lutton, P. Legrand, P. Parrend, N. Monmarché, and
M. Schoenauer, editors, EA 2017: Artificial Evolution, volume 10764 of
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 202–216. Springer,
Heidelberg, 2017.
[ bib 
DOI ]
Automatic algorithm configuration techniques have proved to
be successful in finding performanceoptimizing parameter
settings of many searchbased decision and optimization
algorithms. A recurrent, important step in software
development is the compilation of source code written in some
programming language into machineexecutable code. The
generation of performanceoptimized machine code itself is a
difficult task that can be parametrized in many different
possible ways. While modern compilers usually offer different
levels of optimization as possible defaults, they have a
larger number of other flags and numerical parameters that
impact properties of the generated machinecode. While the
generation of performanceoptimized machine code has received
large attention and is dealt with in the research area of
autotuning, the usage of standard automatic algorithm
configuration software has not been explored, even though, as
we show in this article, the performance of the compiled code
has significant stochasticity, just as standard optimization
algorithms. As a practical case study, we consider the
configuration of the wellknown GNU compiler collection (GCC)
for minimizing the runtime of machine code for various
heuristic search methods. Our experimental results show that,
depending on the specific code to be optimized, improvements
of up to 40% of execution time when compared to the O2
and O3 optimization flags is possible.

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Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Federico Pagnozzi, Alberto Franzin, and Thomas
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Multiobjective evolutionary optimization of traffic flow and
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[1751]

Leslie Pérez Cáceres and Thomas Stützle.
Automatic Algorithm Configuration: Analysis, Improvements and
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PhD thesis, IRIDIA, École polytechnique, Université Libre de
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problems (MAXSAT). In the first part of the
chapter we give an introduction to metaheuristics
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particular, followed by an introduction to
constraint satisfaction and static and dynamic
constraint satisfaction optimization problems.
Then, we describe how to apply the ACO algorithm
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order to find a good lotsizing sequence, i.e. a
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The problem of connecting a set of client nodes
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This study presents a novel evidential reasoning (ER)
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features embedded in Twitter posts (tweets) can predict the
number of retweets achieved during an electoral campaign. The
tweets posted by the two most voted candidates during the
official campaign for the 2017 Ecuadorian Presidential
election were used for this research. For each tweet, five
features including type of tweet, emotion, URL, hashtag, and
date are identified and coded to predict if tweets are of
either high or low impact. The main contributions of the new
proposed model include its suitability to analyse tweet
datasets based on likelihood analysis of data. The model is
interpretable, and the prediction process relies only on the
use of available data. The experimental results show that
MAKERRIMER performed better, in terms of misclassification
error, when compared against other predictive machine
learning approaches. In addition, the model allows observing
which features of the candidates' tweets are linked to high
and low impact. Tweets containing allusions to the contender
candidate, either with positive or negative connotations,
without hashtags, and written towards the end of the
campaign, were persistently those with the highest
impact. URLs, on the other hand, is the only variable that
performs differently for the two candidates in terms of
achieving high impact. MAKERRIMER can provide campaigners of
political parties or candidates with a tool to measure how
features of tweets are predictors of their impact, which can
be useful to tailor Twitter content during electoral
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Keywords: Evidential reasoning rule,Belief rulebased inference,Maximum
likelihood data analysis,Twitter,Retweet,Prediction

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Matthieu Sacher, Régis Duvigneau, Olivier Le Maitre, Mathieu Durand, Elisa
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Proposed EGOLSSVM
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Pramod J. Sadalage and Martin Fowler.
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Bhupinder Singh Saini, Manuel LópezIbáñez, and Kaisa Miettinen.
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A typical scenario when solving industrial single or
multiobjective optimization problems is that no explicit
formulation of the problem is available. Instead, a dataset
containing vectors of decision variables together with their
objective function value(s) is given and a surrogate model
(or metamodel) is build from the data and used for
optimization and decisionmaking. This datadriven
optimization process strongly depends on the ability of the
surrogate model to predict the objective value of decision
variables not present in the original dataset. Therefore, the
choice of surrogate modelling technique is crucial. While
many surrogate modelling techniques have been discussed in
the literature, there is no standard procedure that will
select the best technique for a given problem. In this work,
we propose the automatic selection of a surrogate modelling
technique based on exploratory landscape features of the
optimization problem that underlies the given dataset. The
overall idea is to learn offline from a large pool of
benchmark problems, on which we can evaluate a large number
of surrogate modelling techniques. When given a new dataset,
features are used to select the most appropriate surrogate
modelling technique. The preliminary experiments reported
here suggest that the proposed automatic selector is able to
identify highaccuracy surrogate models as long as an
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Yoshitaka Sakurai, Kouhei Takada, Takashi Kawabe, and Setsuo Tsuruta.
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A. Burcu Altan Sakarya and Larry W. Mays.
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A. Burcu Altan Sakarya, Fred E. Goldman, and Larry W. Mays.
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Francesco Sambo, Barbara Di Camillo, Alberto Franzin, Andrea Facchinetti, Liisa
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A Bayesian Network analysis of the probabilistic relations
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Marcela Samà, Paola Pellegrini, Andrea D'Ariano, Joaquin Rodriguez, and Dario
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Malcolm Sambridge.
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Javier Sánchez, Manuel Galán, and Enrique Rubio.
Applying a traffic lights evolutionary optimization technique to
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algorithms (GAs),Microscopic traffic simulator,Traffic lights
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J. J. SánchezMedina, M. J. GalánMoreno, and E. RubioRoyo.
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Saragossa Under Congestion Conditions, Using Genetic Algorithms, Traffic
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11(1):132–141, March 2010.
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Keywords: cellular automata;genetic algorithms;road traffic;road
vehicles;traffic engineering computing;Beowulf cluster;La
Almozara district;Saragossa;cellular automata;cluster
computing;genetic algorithm;multipleinstruction multiple
data;traffic light programming;traffic
microsimulation;traffic signal optimization;urban traffic
congestion;Cellular automata (CA);genetic algorithms
(GAs);intelligent transportation
systems;microsimulation;traffic congestion;traffic modeling

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Nathan Sankary and Avi Ostfeld.
Stochastic Scenario Evaluation in Evolutionary Algorithms Used
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Kaz Sato, Cliff Young, and David Patterson.
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of time windows introduces feasibility constraints,
the checking of which normally requires O(N)
time. Our method reduces this checking effort to
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initial solutions. A complexity result is given and
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Dragan A. Savic, Godfrey A. Walters, and Martin Schwab.
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In this paper, heuristic solution
techniques for the multiobjective orienteering
problem are developed. The motivation stems from the
problem of planning individual tourist routes in a
city. Each point of interest in a city provides
different benefits for different categories (e.g.,
culture, shopping). Each tourist has different
preferences for the different categories when
selecting and visiting the points of interests
(e.g., museums, churches). Hence, a multiobjective
decision situation arises. To determine all the
Pareto optimal solutions, two metaheuristic search
techniques are developed and applied. We use the
Pareto ant colony optimization algorithm and extend
the design of the variable neighborhood search
method to the multiobjective case. Both methods are
hybridized with path relinking procedures. The
performances of the two algorithms are tested on
several benchmark instances as well as on real world
instances from different Austrian regions and the
cities of Vienna and Padua. The computational
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performing algorithms to solve the multiobjective
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Oliver Schütze, X. Esquivel, A. Lara, and Carlos A. Coello Coello.
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Mark Schillinger, Benjamin Hartmann, Patric Skalecki, Mona Meister, Duy
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Marius Schneider and Holger H. Hoos.
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[1918]

Florian Schroff, Dmitry Kalenichenko, and James Philbin.
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Oliver Schütze, A. Lara, and Carlos A. Coello Coello.
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Oliver Schütze, Marco Laumanns, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Michael
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Proposed Safe Active Learning (SAL) algorithm

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