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IRIDIA BibTeX Repository

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This list of references in automatically generated from a collection of BibTeX files organized in a way that tries to avoid redundancy, minimise mistakes and facilitate customization.

You only need to fork (or link) the git repository in your papers and sync with the main copy to send/receive updates.

Most customisations, such as shorter journal or conference names, do not require changing the existing .bib files. You should not need to edit the entries directly unless you find mistakes. See the README for more details.

References

[1]
David Abramson, Mohan Krishna Amoorthy, and Henry Dang. Simulated annealing cooling schedules for the school timetabling problem. Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research, 16(1):1–22, 1999.
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[2]
David Abramson. Constructing School Timetables Using Simulated Annealing: Sequential and Parallel Algorithms. Management Science, 37(1):98–113, 1991.
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[3]
Tobias Achterberg. SCIP: Solving constraint integer programs. Mathematical Programming Computation, 1(1):1–41, July 2009.
bib | epub ]
[4]
Tobias Achterberg and Timo Berthold. Improving the feasibility pump. Discrete Optimization, 4(1):77–86, 2007.
bib ]
[5]
Héctor-Gabriel Acosta-Mesa, Fernando Rechy-Ramírez, Efrén Mezura-Montes, Nicandro Cruz-Ramírez, and Rodolfo Hernández Jiménez. Application of time series discretization using evolutionary programming for classification of precancerous cervical lesions. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 49:73–83, 2014.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: irace
[6]
Bernardetta Addis, Marco Locatelli, and Fabio Schoen. Disk Packing in a Square: A New Global Optimization Approach. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(4):516–524, 2008.
bib | DOI ]
[7]
B. Adenso-Díaz. Restricted Neighborhood in the Tabu Search for the Flowshop Problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 62(1):27–37, 1992.
bib ]
[8]
B. Adenso-Díaz and Manuel Laguna. Fine-Tuning of Algorithms Using Fractional Experimental Design and Local Search. Operations Research, 54(1):99–114, 2006.
bib ]
Keywords: Calibra
[9]
Steven Adriaensen, André Biedenkapp, Gresa Shala, Noor Awad, Theresa Eimer, Marius Thomas Lindauer, and Frank Hutter. Automated dynamic algorithm configuration. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 75:1633–1699, 2022.
bib | DOI ]
[10]
Bekir Afsar, Kaisa Miettinen, and Francisco Ruiz. Assessing the Performance of Interactive Multiobjective Optimization Methods: A Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, 54(4), 2021.
bib | DOI ]
Interactive methods are useful decision-making tools for multiobjective optimization problems, because they allow a decision-maker to provide her/his preference information iteratively in a comfortable way at the same time as (s)he learns about all different aspects of the problem. A wide variety of interactive methods is nowadays available, and they differ from each other in both technical aspects and type of preference information employed. Therefore, assessing the performance of interactive methods can help users to choose the most appropriate one for a given problem. This is a challenging task, which has been tackled from different perspectives in the published literature. We present a bibliographic survey of papers where interactive multiobjective optimization methods have been assessed (either individually or compared to other methods). Besides other features, we collect information about the type of decision-maker involved (utility or value functions, artificial or human decision-maker), the type of preference information provided, and aspects of interactive methods that were somehow measured. Based on the survey and on our own experiences, we identify a series of desirable properties of interactive methods that we believe should be assessed.
Keywords: decision-makers, Interactive methods, performance assessment, preference information, multiobjective optimization problems
[11]
Ralph D'Agostino and E. S. Pearson. Tests for Departure from Normality. Empirical Results for the Distributions of b2 and √b1. Biometrika, 60(3):613–622, December 1973.
bib | DOI ]
[12]
Per J. Agrell. On redundancy in multi criteria decision making. European Journal of Operational Research, 98(3):571–586, 1997.
bib | DOI ]
The concept of redundancy is accepted in Operations Research and Information Theory. In Linear Programming, a constraint is said to be redundant if the feasible decision space is identical with or without the constraint. In Information Theory, redundancy is used as a measure of the stability against noise in transmission. Analogies with Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) are indicated and it is argued that the redundancy concept should be used as a regular feature in conditioning and analysis of Multi Criteria Programs. Properties of a proposed conflict-based characterisation are stated and some existence results are derived. Redundancy is here intended for interactive methods, when the efficient set is progressively explored. A new redundancy test for the linear case is formulated from the framework. A probabilistic method based on correlation is proposed and tested for the non-linear case. Finally, some general guidelines are given concerning the redundancy problem.
Keywords: Multi criteria decision making, Redundancy, objective reduction, Vector optimisation
[13]
Hernán E. Aguirre and Kiyoshi Tanaka. Working principles, behavior, and performance of MOEAs on MNK-landscapes. European Journal of Operational Research, 181(3):1670–1690, 2007.
bib | DOI ]
[14]
Samad Ahmadi and Ibrahim H. Osman. Density Based Problem Space Search for the Capacitated Clustering p-Median Problem. Annals of Operations Research, 131:21–43, 2004.
bib ]
[15]
Ali Ahrari, Saber Elsayed, Ruhul Sarker, Daryl Essam, and Carlos A. Coello Coello. Weighted pointwise prediction method for dynamic multiobjective optimization. Information Sciences, 546:349–367, 2021.
bib ]
[16]
R. K. Ahuja, O. Ergun, and A. P. Punnen. A Survey of Very Large-scale Neighborhood Search Techniques. Discrete Applied Mathematics, 123(1–3):75–102, 2002.
bib ]
[17]
Sandip Aine, Rajeev Kumar, and P. P. Chakrabarti. Adaptive parameter control of evolutionary algorithms to improve quality-time trade-off. Applied Soft Computing, 9(2):527–540, 2009.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: anytime
[18]
A. A. Albrecht, P. C. R. Lane, and K. Steinhöfel. Analysis of Local Search Landscapes for k-SAT Instances. Mathematics in Computer Science, 3(4):465–488, 2010.
bib | DOI ]
[19]
Susanne Albers. Online Algorithms: A Survey. Mathematical Programming, 97(1):3–26, 2003.
bib ]
[20]
Aldeida Aleti and Irene Moser. A systematic literature review of adaptive parameter control methods for evolutionary algorithms. ACM Computing Surveys, 49(3, Article 56):35, October 2016.
bib | DOI ]
[21]
Pedro Alfaro-Fernández, Rubén Ruiz, Federico Pagnozzi, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Algorithm Design for Hybrid Flowshop Scheduling Problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 282(3):835–845, 2020.
bib | DOI ]
Industrial production scheduling problems are challenges that researchers have been trying to solve for decades. Many practical scheduling problems such as the hybrid flowshop are NP-hard. As a result, researchers resort to metaheuristics to obtain effective and efficient solutions. The traditional design process of metaheuristics is mainly manual, often metaphor-based, biased by previous experience and prone to producing overly tailored methods that only work well on the tested problems and objectives. In this paper, we use an Automatic Algorithm Design (AAD) methodology to eliminate these limitations. AAD is capable of composing algorithms from components with minimal human intervention. We test the proposed AAD for three different optimization objectives in the hybrid flowshop. Comprehensive computational and statistical testing demonstrates that automatically designed algorithms outperform specifically tailored state-of-the-art methods for the tested objectives in most cases.
Keywords: Scheduling, Hybrid flowshop, Automatic algorithm configuration, Automatic Algorithm Design
[22]
Alnur Ali and Marina Meilă. Experiments with Kemeny ranking: What Works When? Mathematical Social Science, 64(1):28–40, July 2012.
bib | DOI ]
Computational Foundations of Social Choice
Keywords: Borda ranking, Kemeny ranking
[23]
Ali Allahverdi and Harun Aydilek. Algorithms for no-wait flowshops with total completion time subject to makespan. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, pp.  1–15, 2013.
bib ]
[24]
Richard Allmendinger, Andrzej Jaszkiewicz, Arnaud Liefooghe, and Christiane Tammer. What if we increase the number of objectives? Theoretical and empirical implications for many-objective combinatorial optimization. Computers & Operations Research, 145:105857, 2022.
bib | DOI ]
[25]
Richard Allmendinger and Joshua D. Knowles. On Handling Ephemeral Resource Constraints in Evolutionary Search. Evolutionary Computation, 21(3):497–531, September 2013.
bib | DOI ]
We consider optimization problems where the set of solutions available for evaluation at any given time t during optimization is some subset of the feasible space. This model is appropriate to describe many closed-loop optimization settings (i.e. where physical processes or experiments are used to evaluate solutions) where, due to resource limitations, it may be impossible to evaluate particular solutions at particular times (despite the solutions being part of the feasible space). We call the constraints determining which solutions are non-evaluable ephemeral resource constraints (ERCs). In this paper, we investigate two specific types of ERC: one encodes periodic resource availabilities, the other models `commitment' constraints that make the evaluable part of the space a function of earlier evaluations conducted. In an experimental study, both types of constraint are seen to impact the performance of an evolutionary algorithm significantly. To deal with the effects of the ERCs, we propose and test five different constrainthandling policies (adapted from those used to handle `standard' constraints), using a number of different test functions including a fitness landscape from a real closed-loop problem. We show that knowing information about the type of resource constraint in advance may be sufficient to select an effective policy for dealing with it, even when advance knowledge of the fitness landscape is limited.
[26]
Christian Almeder. A hybrid optimization approach for multi-level capacitated lot-sizing problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 200(2):599–606, 2010.
bib | DOI ]
Solving multi-level capacitated lot-sizing problems is still a challenging task, in spite of increasing computational power and faster algorithms. In this paper a new approach combining an ant-based algorithm with an exact solver for (mixed-integer) linear programs is presented. A MAX-MIN ant system is developed to determine the principal production decisions, a LP/MIP solver is used to calculate the corresponding production quantities and inventory levels. Two different local search methods and an improvement strategy based on reduced mixed-integer problems are developed and integrated into the ant algorithm. This hybrid approach provides superior results for small and medium-sized problems in comparison to the existing approaches in the literature. For large-scale problems the performance of this method is among the best
Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Manufacturing, Material requirements planning, Mixed-integer programming
[27]
S. Alupoaei and S. Katkoori. Ant Colony System Application to Marcocell Overlap Removal. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 12(10):1118–1122, 2004.
bib ]
[28]
André R. S. Amaral. The Corridor Allocation Problem. Computers & Operations Research, 39(12):3325–3330, 2012.
bib | DOI ]
The corridor allocation problem (CAP) seeks an arrangement of facilities along a central corridor defined by two horizontal lines parallel to the x-axis of a Cartesian coordinate system. The objective is to minimize the total communication cost among facilities, while respecting two main conditions: (i) no space is allowed between two adjacent facilities; (ii) the left-most point of the arrangement on either line should have zero abscissa. The conditions (i) and (ii) are required in many applications such as the arrangement of rooms at office buildings or hospitals. The CAP is a NP-Hard problem. In this paper, a mixed-integer programming formulation of the CAP is proposed, which allows us to compute optimal layouts in reasonable time for problem instances of moderate sizes. Moreover, heuristic procedures are presented that can handle larger instances.
Keywords: Facility layout, Double row layout, Integer programming
[29]
C. Amir, A. Badr, and I Farag. A Fuzzy Logic Controller for Ant Algorithms. Computing and Information Systems, 11(2):26–34, 2007.
bib ]
[30]
Christophe Andrieu, Nando de Freitas, Arnaud Doucet, and Michael I. Jordan. An Introduction to MCMC for Machine Learning. Machine Learning, 50(1-2):5–43, 2003.
bib ]
[31]
K. A. Andersen, K. Jörnsten, and M. Lind. On bicriterion minimal spanning trees: An approximation. Computers & Operations Research, 23(12):1171–1182, 1996.
bib ]
[32]
Y. P. Aneja and K. P. K. Nair. Bicriteria Transportation Problem. Management Science, 25(1):73–78, 1979.
bib ]
[33]
Eric Angel, Evripidis Bampis, and Laurent Gourvés. Approximating the Pareto curve with local search for the bicriteria TSP(1,2) problem. Theoretical Computer Science, 310(1-3):135–146, 2004.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: Archiving, Local search, Multicriteria TSP, Approximation algorithms
[34]
Daniel Angus and Clinton Woodward. Multiple Objective Ant Colony Optimisation. Swarm Intelligence, 3(1):69–85, 2009.
bib | DOI ]
[35]
Miguel F. Anjos and Manuel V. C. Vieira. Mathematical optimization approaches for facility layout problems: The state-of-the-art and future research directions. European Journal of Operational Research, 261(1):1–16, 2017.
bib ]
[36]
Kurt Anstreicher, Nathan Brixius, Jean-Pierre Goux, and Jeff Linderoth. Solving large quadratic assignment problems on computational grids. Mathematical Programming Series B, 91(3):563–588, February 2002.
bib | DOI ]
The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is among the hardest combinatorial optimization problems. Some instances of size n = 30 have remained unsolved for decades. The solution of these problems requires both improvements in mathematical programming algorithms and the utilization of powerful computational platforms. In this article we describe a novel approach to solve QAPs using a state-of-the-art branch-and-bound algorithm running on a federation of geographically distributed resources known as a computational grid. Solution of QAPs of unprecedented complexity, including the nug30, kra30b, and tho30 instances, is reported.
[37]
David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook. Implementing the Dantzig-Fulkerson-Johnson Algorithm for Large Traveling Salesman Problems. Mathematical Programming Series B, 97(1–2):91–153, 2003.
bib | DOI ]
[38]
David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, and William J. Cook. On the Solution of Traveling Salesman Problems. Documenta Mathematica, Extra Volume ICM III:645–656, 1998.
bib ]
[39]
J. S. Appleby, D. V. Blake, and E. A. Newman. Techniques for producing school timetables on a computer and their application to other scheduling problems. The Computer Journal, 3(4):237–245, 1961.
bib | DOI ]
[40]
David Applegate and William J. Cook. A Computational Study of the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem. ORSA Journal on Computing, 3(2):149–156, 1991.
bib ]
[41]
David Applegate, William J. Cook, and André Rohe. Chained Lin-Kernighan for Large Traveling Salesman Problems. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 15(1):82–92, 2003.
bib | DOI ]
[42]
David Applegate, Robert E. Bixby, Vašek Chvátal, William J. Cook, D. Espinoza, M. Goycoolea, and Keld Helsgaun. Certification of an Optimal TSP Tour Through 85,900 Cities. Operations Research Letters, 37(1):11–15, 2009.
bib ]
[43]
Claus Aranha, Christian Leonardo Camacho-Villalón, Felipe Campelo, Marco Dorigo, Rubén Ruiz, Marc Sevaux, Kenneth Sörensen, and Thomas Stützle. Metaphor-based Metaheuristics, a Call for Action: the Elephant in the Room. Swarm Intelligence, 16(1):1–6, 2022.
bib | DOI ]
[44]
Claudia Archetti, Martin Savelsbergh, and M. Grazia Speranza. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Occasional Drivers. European Journal of Operational Research, 254(2):472–480, 2016.
bib | DOI ]
[45]
Florian Arnold, Ítalo Santana, Kenneth Sörensen, and Thibaut Vidal. PILS: Exploring high-order neighborhoods by pattern mining and injection. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1912.11462, 2019.
bib | http ]
[46]
Florian Arnold and Kenneth Sörensen. Knowledge-guided local search for the vehicle routing problem. Computers & Operations Research, 105:32–46, 2019.
bib | DOI ]
[47]
Florian Arnold and Kenneth Sörensen. What makes a VRP solution good? The generation of problem-specific knowledge for heuristics. Computers & Operations Research, 106:280–288, 2019.
bib | DOI ]
[48]
Marvin A. Arostegui Jr, Sukran N. Kadipasaoglu, and Basheer M. Khumawala. An empirical comparison of tabu search, simulated annealing, and genetic algorithms for facilities location problems. International Journal of Production Economics, 103(2):742–754, 2006.
bib ]
[49]
José Elias C. Arroyo and V. A. Armentano. A partial enumeration heuristic for multi-objective flowshop scheduling problems. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 55(9):1000–1007, 2004.
bib ]
[50]
José Elias C. Arroyo and V. A. Armentano. Genetic local search for multi-objective flowshop scheduling problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 167(3):717–738, 2005.
bib ]
Keywords: Multicriteria Scheduling
[51]
José Elias C. Arroyo and Joseph Y.-T. Leung. An Effective Iterated Greedy Algorithm for Scheduling Unrelated Parallel Batch Machines with Non-identical Capacities and Unequal Ready Times. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 105:84–100, 2017.
bib ]
[52]
N. Ascheuer, Matteo Fischetti, and M. Grötschel. Solving asymmetric travelling salesman problem with time windows by branch-and-cut. Mathematical Programming, 90:475–506, 2001.
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[53]
John-Alexander M. Assael, Ziyu Wang, and Nando de Freitas. Heteroscedastic Treed Bayesian Optimisation. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1410.7172, 2014.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: Treed-GP
[54]
Alper Atamtürk. On the facets of the mixed–integer knapsack polyhedron. Mathematical Programming, 98(1):145–175, 2003.
bib | DOI ]
[55]
Charles Audet, Cong-Kien Dang, and Dominique Orban. Optimization of Algorithms with OPAL. Mathematical Programming Computation, 6(3):233–254, 2014.
bib ]
[56]
P. Audze and Vilnis Eglãjs. New approach to the design of multifactor experiments. Problems of Dynamics and Strengths, 35:104–107, 1977. (in Russian).
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[57]
Charles Audet and Dominique Orban. Finding Optimal Algorithmic Parameters Using Derivative-Free Optimization. SIAM Journal on Optimization, 17(3):642–664, 2006.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: mesh adaptive direct search; pattern search
[58]
Peter Auer. Using Confidence Bounds for Exploitation-Exploration Trade-offs. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3:397–422, November 2002.
bib ]
We show how a standard tool from statistics — namely confidence bounds — can be used to elegantly deal with situations which exhibit an exploitation-exploration trade-off. Our technique for designing and analyzing algorithms for such situations is general and can be applied when an algorithm has to make exploitation-versus-exploration decisions based on uncertain information provided by a random process. We apply our technique to two models with such an exploitation-exploration trade-off. For the adversarial bandit problem with shifting our new algorithm suffers only O((ST)1/2) regret with high probability over T trials with S shifts. Such a regret bound was previously known only in expectation. The second model we consider is associative reinforcement learning with linear value functions. For this model our technique improves the regret from O(T3/4) to O(T1/2).
[59]
Peter Auer, Nicolo Cesa-Bianchi, and Paul Fischer. Finite-time analysis of the multiarmed bandit problem. Machine Learning, 47(2-3):235–256, 2002.
bib ]
[60]
Anne Auger, Johannes Bader, Dimo Brockhoff, and Eckart Zitzler. Hypervolume-based multiobjective optimization: Theoretical foundations and practical implications. Theoretical Computer Science, 425:75–103, 2012.
bib | DOI ]
[61]
Mustafa Avci and Seyda Topaloglu. A Multi-start Iterated Local Search Algorithm for the Generalized Quadratic Multiple Knapsack Problem. Computers & Operations Research, 83:54–65, 2017.
bib ]
[62]
Andreea Avramescu, Richard Allmendinger, and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Managing Manufacturing and Delivery of Personalised Medicine: Current and Future Models. Arxiv preprint arXiv:2105.12699 [econ.GN], 2021.
bib | http ]
[63]
Doǧan Aydın, Gürcan Yavuz, and Thomas Stützle. ABC-X: A Generalized, Automatically Configurable Artificial Bee Colony Framework. Swarm Intelligence, 11(1):1–38, 2017.
bib ]
[64]
Mayowa Ayodele, Richard Allmendinger, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Matthieu Parizy. A Study of Scalarisation Techniques for Multi-Objective QUBO Solving. Arxiv preprint arXiv:2210.11321, 2022.
bib | DOI ]
[65]
Mahdi Aziz and Mohammad-H. Tayarani-N. An adaptive memetic Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for finding large-scale Latin hypercube designs. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, 36:222–237, 2014.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: F-race
[66]
François Bachoc, Céline Helbert, and Victor Picheny. Gaussian process optimization with failures: Classification and convergence proof. Journal of Global Optimization, 2020.
bib | DOI | epub ]
We consider the optimization of a computer model where each simulation either fails or returns a valid output performance. We first propose a new joint Gaussian process model for classification of the inputs (computation failure or success) and for regression of the performance function. We provide results that allow for a computationally efficient maximum likelihood estimation of the covariance parameters, with a stochastic approximation of the likelihood gradient. We then extend the classical improvement criterion to our setting of joint classification and regression. We provide an efficient computation procedure for the extended criterion and its gradient. We prove the almost sure convergence of the global optimization algorithm following from this extended criterion. We also study the practical performances of this algorithm, both on simulated data and on a real computer model in the context of automotive fan design.
Keywords: crashed simulation; latent gaussian process; automotive fan design; industrial application; GP classification; Expected Feasible Improvement with Gaussian Process Classification with signs; EFI GPC sign
[67]
Johannes Bader and Eckart Zitzler. HypE: An Algorithm for Fast Hypervolume-Based Many-Objective Optimization. Evolutionary Computation, 19(1):45–76, 2011.
bib | DOI ]
[68]
Hossein Baharmand, Tina Comes, and Matthieu Lauras. Bi-objective multi-layer location– allocation model for the immediate aftermath of sudden-onset disasters. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 127:86–110, 2019.
bib | DOI ]
Locating distribution centers is critical for humanitarians in the immediate aftermath of a sudden-onset disaster. A major challenge lies in balancing the complexity and uncertainty of the problem with time and resource constraints. To address this problem, we propose a location-allocation model that divides the topography of affected areas into multiple layers; considers constrained number and capacity of facilities and fleets; and allows decision-makers to explore trade-offs between response time and logistics costs. To illustrate our theoretical work, we apply the model to a real dataset from the 2015 Nepal earthquake response. For this case, our method results in a considerable reduction of logistics costs.
[69]
Monya Baker. Is there a reproducibility crisis? Nature, 533:452–454, 2016.
bib ]
[70]
Edward K. Baker. An Exact Algorithm for the Time-Constrained Traveling Salesman Problem. Operations Research, 31(5):938–945, 1983.
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[71]
Burcu Balcik and Benita M. Beamon. Facility location in humanitarian relief. International Journal of Logistics, 11(2):101–121, 2008.
bib ]
[72]
Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo. Adaptive Sampling Size and Importance Sampling in Estimation-based Local Search for the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 199(1):98–110, 2009.
bib ]
[73]
Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo. Estimation-based Metaheuristics for the Probabilistic Travelling Salesman Problem. Computers & Operations Research, 37(11):1939–1951, 2010.
bib | DOI ]
[74]
Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo. Estimation-based Metaheuristics for the Single Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands and Customers. Computational Optimization and Applications, 61(2):463–487, 2015.
bib | DOI ]
[75]
Prasanna Balaprakash, Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, Zhi Yuan, and Marco Dorigo. Estimation-based Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms for the Probabilistic Travelling Salesman Problem. Swarm Intelligence, 3(3):223–242, 2009.
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[76]
Egon Balas and M. C. Carrera. A Dynamic Subgradient-based Branch and Bound Procedure for Set Covering. Operations Research, 44(6):875–890, 1996.
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[77]
Egon Balas and C. Martin. Pivot and Complement–A Heuristic for 0–1 Programming. Management Science, 26(1):86–96, 1980.
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[78]
Egon Balas and M. W. Padberg. Set Partitioning: A Survey. SIAM Review, 18:710–760, 1976.
bib ]
[79]
Egon Balas and Neil Simonetti. Linear Time Dynamic-Programming Algorithms for New Classes of Restricted TSPs: A Computational Study. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 13(1):56–75, 2001.
bib | DOI ]
Consider the following restricted (symmetric or asymmetric) traveling-salesman problem (TSP): given an initial ordering of the n cities and an integer k > 0, find a minimum-cost feasible tour, where a feasible tour is one in which city i precedes city j whenever j >= i + k in the initial ordering. Balas (1996) has proposed a dynamic-programming algorithm that solves this problem in time linear in n, though exponential in k. Some important real-world problems are amenable to this model or some of its close relatives. The algorithm of Balas (1996) constructs a layered network with a layer of nodes for each position in the tour, such that source-sink paths in this network are in one-to-one correspondence with tours that satisfy the postulated precedence constraints. In this paper we discuss an implementation of the dynamic-programming algorithm for the general case when the integer k is replaced with city-specific integers k(j), j = 1, . . ., n. We discuss applications to, and computational experience with, TSPs with time windows, a model frequently used in vehicle routing as well as in scheduling with setup, release and delivery times. We also introduce a new model, the TSP with target times, applicable to Just-in-Time scheduling problems. Finally for TSPs that have no precedence restrictions, we use the algorithm as a heuristic that finds in linear time a local optimum over an exponential-size neighborhood. For this case, we implement an iterated version of our procedure, based on contracting some arcs of the tour produced by a first application of the algorithm, then reapplying the algorithm to the shrunken graph with the same k.
Keywords: tsptw
[80]
Egon Balas and A. Vazacopoulos. Guided Local Search with Shifting Bottleneck for Job Shop Scheduling. Management Science, 44(2):262–275, 1998.
bib ]
[81]
Steven C. Bankes. Tools and techniques for developing policies for complex and uncertain systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(suppl 3):7263–7266, 2002.
bib | DOI ]
Agent-based models (ABM) are examples of complex adaptive systems, which can be characterized as those systems for which no model less complex than the system itself can accurately predict in detail how the system will behave at future times. Consequently, the standard tools of policy analysis, based as they are on devising policies that perform well on some best estimate model of the system, cannot be reliably used for ABM. This paper argues that policy analysis by using ABM requires an alternative approach to decision theory. The general characteristics of such an approach are described, and examples are provided of its application to policy analysis.ABM, agent-based model
[82]
Eduardo Batista de Moraes Barbosa, Edson Luiz Francça Senne, and Messias Borges Silva. Improving the Performance of Metaheuristics: An Approach Combining Response Surface Methodology and Racing Algorithms. International Journal of Engineering Mathematics, 2015:Article ID 167031, 2015.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: F-race
[83]
Alejandro Barredo Arrieta, Natalia Díaz-Rodríguez, Javier Del Ser, Adrien Bennetot, Siham Tabik, Alberto Barbado, Salvador Garcia, Sergio Gil-Lopez, Daniel Molina, Richard Benjamins, Raja Chatila, and Francisco Herrera. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI): Concepts, taxonomies, opportunities and challenges toward responsible AI. Information Fusion, 58:82–115, June 2020.
bib | DOI ]
[84]
Thomas Bartz-Beielstein, Carola Doerr, Daan van den Berg, Jakob Bossek, Sowmya Chandrasekaran, Tome Eftimov, Andreas Fischbach, Pascal Kerschke, William La Cava, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Katherine M. Malan, Jason H. Moore, Boris Naujoks, Patryk Orzechowski, Vanessa Volz, Markus Wagner, and Thomas Weise. Benchmarking in Optimization: Best Practice and Open Issues. Arxiv preprint arXiv:2007.03488 [cs.NE], 2020.
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[85]
Richard S. Barr, Bruce L. Golden, James P. Kelly, Mauricio G. C. Resende, and Jr. William R. Stewart. Designing and Reporting on Computational Experiments with Heuristic Methods. Journal of Heuristics, 1(1):9–32, 1995.
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Peer reviews are a unique governance tool that use expertise from one city or country to assess and strengthen the capabilities of another. Peer review tools are gaining momentum in disaster management and remain an important but understudied topic in risk governance. Methodologies to conduct a peer review are still in their infancy. To enhance these, a systematic literature review (SLR) of academic and non-academic literature was conducted on city resilience peer reviews. Thirty-three attributes of resilience are identified, which provides useful insights into how research and practice can inform risk governance, and utilise peer reviews, to drive meaningful change. Moreover, it situates the challenges associated with resilience building tools within risk governance to support the development of interdisciplinary perspectives for integrated city resilience frameworks. Results of this research have been used to develop a peer review methodology and an international standard on conducting peer reviews for disaster risk reduction.
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Most results in the field of algorithm design are single algorithms that solve single problems. In this paper we discuss multidimensional divide-and-conquer, an algorithmic paradigm that can be instantiated in many different ways to yield a number of algorithms and data structures for multidimensional problems. We use this paradigm to give best-known solutions to such problems as the ECDF, maxima, range searching, closest pair, and all nearest neighbor problems. The contributions of the paper are on two levels. On the first level are the particular algorithms and data structures given by applying the paradigm. On the second level is the more novel contribution of this paper: a detailed study of an algorithmic paradigm that is specific enough to be described precisely yet general enough to solve a wide variety of problems.
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Grid search and manual search are the most widely used strategies for hyper-parameter optimization. This paper shows empirically and theoretically that randomly chosen trials are more efficient for hyper-parameter optimization than trials on a grid. Empirical evidence comes from a comparison with a large previous study that used grid search and manual search to configure neural networks and deep belief networks. Compared with neural networks configured by a pure grid search, we find that random search over the same domain is able to find models that are as good or better within a small fraction of the computation time. Granting random search the same computational budget, random search finds better models by effectively searching a larger, less promising configuration space. Compared with deep belief networks configured by a thoughtful combination of manual search and grid search, purely random search over the same 32-dimensional configuration space found statistically equal performance on four of seven data sets, and superior performance on one of seven. A Gaussian process analysis of the function from hyper-parameters to validation set performance reveals that for most data sets only a few of the hyper-parameters really matter, but that different hyper-parameters are important on different data sets. This phenomenon makes grid search a poor choice for configuring algorithms for new data sets. Our analysis casts some light on why recent "High Throughput" methods achieve surprising success: they appear to search through a large number of hyper-parameters because most hyper-parameters do not matter much. We anticipate that growing interest in large hierarchical models will place an increasing burden on techniques for hyper-parameter optimization; this work shows that random search is a natural baseline against which to judge progress in the development of adaptive (sequential) hyper-parameter optimization algorithms.
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Loïc Berger, Johannes Emmerling, and Massimo Tavoni. Managing catastrophic climate risks under model uncertainty aversion. Management Science, 63(3):749–765, 2017.
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Felix Berkenkamp, Andreas Krause, and Angela P. Schoellig. Bayesian Optimization with Safety Constraints: Safe and Automatic Parameter Tuning in Robotics. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1602.04450, 2016.
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Keywords: Safe Optimization, SafeOpt
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Felix Berkenkamp, Andreas Krause, and Angela P. Schoellig. Bayesian optimization with safety constraints: safe and automatic parameter tuning in robotics. Machine Learning, June 2021.
bib | DOI ]
Selecting the right tuning parameters for algorithms is a pravelent problem in machine learning that can significantly affect the performance of algorithms. Data-efficient optimization algorithms, such as Bayesian optimization, have been used to automate this process. During experiments on real-world systems such as robotic platforms these methods can evaluate unsafe parameters that lead to safety-critical system failures and can destroy the system. Recently, a safe Bayesian optimization algorithm, called SafeOpt, has been developed, which guarantees that the performance of the system never falls below a critical value; that is, safety is defined based on the performance function. However, coupling performance and safety is often not desirable in practice, since they are often opposing objectives. In this paper, we present a generalized algorithm that allows for multiple safety constraints separate from the objective. Given an initial set of safe parameters, the algorithm maximizes performance but only evaluates parameters that satisfy safety for all constraints with high probability. To this end, it carefully explores the parameter space by exploiting regularity assumptions in terms of a Gaussian process prior. Moreover, we show how context variables can be used to safely transfer knowledge to new situations and tasks. We provide a theoretical analysis and demonstrate that the proposed algorithm enables fast, automatic, and safe optimization of tuning parameters in experiments on a quadrotor vehicle.
Preprint: http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.04450
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Nicola Beume, Carlos M. Fonseca, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Luís Paquete, and Jan Vahrenhold. On the complexity of computing the hypervolume indicator. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 13(5):1075–1082, 2009.
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The goal of multi-objective optimization is to find a set of best compromise solutions for typically conflicting objectives. Due to the complex nature of most real-life problems, only an approximation to such an optimal set can be obtained within reasonable (computing) time. To compare such approximations, and thereby the performance of multi-objective optimizers providing them, unary quality measures are usually applied. Among these, the hypervolume indicator (or S-metric) is of particular relevance due to its favorable properties. Moreover, this indicator has been successfully integrated into stochastic optimizers, such as evolutionary algorithms, where it serves as a guidance criterion for finding good approximations to the Pareto front. Recent results show that computing the hypervolume indicator can be seen as solving a specialized version of Klee's Measure Problem. In general, Klee's Measure Problem can be solved with O(n log n + nd/2log n) comparisons for an input instance of size n in d dimensions; as of this writing, it is unknown whether a lower bound higher than Ω(n log n) can be proven. In this article, we derive a lower bound of Ω(nlog n) for the complexity of computing the hypervolume indicator in any number of dimensions d>1 by reducing the so-called UniformGap problem to it. For the three dimensional case, we also present a matching upper bound of O(nlog n) comparisons that is obtained by extending an algorithm for finding the maxima of a point set.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. A Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation of High-Performing Multi- and Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Computation, 26(4):621–656, 2018.
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Research on multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) has produced over the past decades a large number of algorithms and a rich literature on performance assessment tools to evaluate and compare them. Yet, newly proposed MOEAs are typically compared against very few, often a decade older MOEAs. One reason for this apparent contradiction is the lack of a common baseline for comparison, with each subsequent study often devising its own experimental scenario, slightly different from other studies. As a result, the state of the art in MOEAs is a disputed topic. This article reports a systematic, comprehensive evaluation of a large number of MOEAs that covers a wide range of experimental scenarios. A novelty of this study is the separation between the higher-level algorithmic components related to multi-objective optimization (MO), which characterize each particular MOEA, and the underlying parameters-such as evolutionary operators, population size, etc.-whose configuration may be tuned for each scenario. Instead of relying on a common or "default" parameter configuration that may be low-performing for particular MOEAs or scenarios and unintentionally biased, we tune the parameters of each MOEA for each scenario using automatic algorithm configuration methods. Our results confirm some of the assumed knowledge in the field, while at the same time they provide new insights on the relative performance of MOEAs for many-objective problems. For example, under certain conditions, indicator-based MOEAs are more competitive for such problems than previously assumed. We also analyze problem-specific features affecting performance, the agreement between performance metrics, and the improvement of tuned configurations over the default configurations used in the literature. Finally, the data produced is made publicly available to motivate further analysis and a baseline for future comparisons.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatically Designing State-of-the-Art Multi- and Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. Evolutionary Computation, 28(2):195–226, 2020.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
A recent comparison of well-established multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) has helped better identify the current state-of-the-art by considering (i) parameter tuning through automatic configuration, (ii) a wide range of different setups, and (iii) various performance metrics. Here, we automatically devise MOEAs with verified state-of-the-art performance for multi- and many-objective continuous optimization. Our work is based on two main considerations. The first is that high-performing algorithms can be obtained from a configurable algorithmic framework in an automated way. The second is that multiple performance metrics may be required to guide this automatic design process. In the first part of this work, we extend our previously proposed algorithmic framework, increasing the number of MOEAs, underlying evolutionary algorithms, and search paradigms that it comprises. These components can be combined following a general MOEA template, and an automatic configuration method is used to instantiate high-performing MOEA designs that optimize a given performance metric and present state-of-the-art performance. In the second part, we propose a multiobjective formulation for the automatic MOEA design, which proves critical for the context of many-objective optimization due to the disagreement of established performance metrics. Our proposed formulation leads to an automatically designed MOEA that presents state-of-the-art performance according to a set of metrics, rather than a single one.
[128]
Leonora Bianchi, Mauro Birattari, M. Manfrin, M. Mastrolilli, Luís Paquete, O. Rossi-Doria, and Tommaso Schiavinotto. Hybrid Metaheuristics for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands. Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 5(1):91–110, 2006.
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Leonora Bianchi, Marco Dorigo, L. M. Gambardella, and Walter J. Gutjahr. A survey on metaheuristics for stochastic combinatorial optimization. Natural Computing, 8(2):239–287, 2009.
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[130]
M. Binois, D. Ginsbourger, and O. Roustant. Quantifying uncertainty on Pareto fronts with Gaussian process conditional simulations. European Journal of Operational Research, 243(2):386–394, 2015.
bib | DOI ]
Multi-objective optimization algorithms aim at finding Pareto-optimal solutions. Recovering Pareto fronts or Pareto sets from a limited number of function evaluations are challenging problems. A popular approach in the case of expensive-to-evaluate functions is to appeal to metamodels. Kriging has been shown efficient as a base for sequential multi-objective optimization, notably through infill sampling criteria balancing exploitation and exploration such as the Expected Hypervolume Improvement. Here we consider Kriging metamodels not only for selecting new points, but as a tool for estimating the whole Pareto front and quantifying how much uncertainty remains on it at any stage of Kriging-based multi-objective optimization algorithms. Our approach relies on the Gaussian process interpretation of Kriging, and bases upon conditional simulations. Using concepts from random set theory, we propose to adapt the Vorob'ev expectation and deviation to capture the variability of the set of non-dominated points. Numerical experiments illustrate the potential of the proposed workflow, and it is shown on examples how Gaussian process simulations and the estimated Vorob'ev deviation can be used to monitor the ability of Kriging-based multi-objective optimization algorithms to accurately learn the Pareto front.
Keywords: Attainment function, Expected Hypervolume Improvement, Kriging, Multi-objective optimization, Vorob'ev expectation
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Mauro Birattari, Prasanna Balaprakash, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo. Estimation Based Local Search for Stochastic Combinatorial Optimization. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(4):644–658, 2008.
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Mauro Birattari, Paola Pellegrini, and Marco Dorigo. On the invariance of ant colony optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 11(6):732–742, 2007.
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[133]
Mauro Birattari, M. Zlochin, and Marco Dorigo. Towards a theory of practice in metaheuristics design: A machine learning perspective. Theoretical Informatics and Applications, 40(2):353–369, 2006.
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Francesco Biscani, Dario Izzo, and Chit Hong Yam. A Global Optimisation Toolbox for Massively Parallel Engineering Optimisation. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1004.3824, 2010.
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A software platform for global optimisation, called PaGMO, has been developed within the Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) at the European Space Agency, and was recently released as an open-source project. PaGMO is built to tackle high-dimensional global optimisation problems, and it has been successfully used to find solutions to real-life engineering problems among which the preliminary design of interplanetary spacecraft trajectories - both chemical (including multiple flybys and deep-space maneuvers) and low-thrust (limited, at the moment, to single phase trajectories), the inverse design of nano-structured radiators and the design of non-reactive controllers for planetary rovers. Featuring an arsenal of global and local optimisation algorithms (including genetic algorithms, differential evolution, simulated annealing, particle swarm optimisation, compass search, improved harmony search, and various interfaces to libraries for local optimisation such as SNOPT, IPOPT, GSL and NLopt), PaGMO is at its core a C++ library which employs an object-oriented architecture providing a clean and easily-extensible optimisation framework. Adoption of multi-threaded programming ensures the efficient exploitation of modern multi-core architectures and allows for a straightforward implementation of the island model paradigm, in which multiple populations of candidate solutions asynchronously exchange information in order to speed-up and improve the optimisation process. In addition to the C++ interface, PaGMO's capabilities are exposed to the high-level language Python, so that it is possible to easily use PaGMO in an interactive session and take advantage of the numerous scientific Python libraries available.
Keywords: PaGMO
[135]
Bernd Bischl, Martin Binder, Michel Lang, Tobias Pielok, Jakob Richter, Stefan Coors, Janek Thomas, Theresa Ullmann, Marc Becker, Anne-Laure Boulesteix, Difan Deng, and Marius Thomas Lindauer. Hyperparameter optimization: Foundations, algorithms, best practices, and open challenges. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery, 13(2):e1484, 2023.
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Bernd Bischl, Pascal Kerschke, Lars Kotthoff, Marius Thomas Lindauer, Yuri Malitsky, Alexandre Fréchette, Holger H. Hoos, Frank Hutter, Kevin Leyton-Brown, Kevin Tierney, and Joaquin Vanschoren. ASlib: A Benchmark Library for Algorithm Selection. Artificial Intelligence, 237:41–58, 2016.
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Bernd Bischl, Michel Lang, Lars Kotthoff, Julia Schiffner, Jakob Richter, Erich Studerus, Giuseppe Casalicchio, and Zachary M. Jones. mlr: Machine Learning in R. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(170):1–5, 2016.
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Xavier Blasco, Juan M. Herrero, Javier Sanchis, and Manuel Martínez. A new graphical visualization of n-dimensional Pareto front for decision-making in multiobjective optimization. Information Sciences, 178(20):3908–3924, 2008.
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Craig Blackmore, Oliver Ray, and Kerstin Eder. Automatically Tuning the GCC Compiler to Optimize the Performance of Applications Running on Embedded Systems. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1703.08228, 2017.
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[140]
María J. Blesa and Christian Blum. Finding edge-disjoint paths in networks by means of artificial ant colonies. Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 6(3):361–391, 2007.
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[141]
Laurens Bliek, Paulo da Costa, Reza Refaei Afshar, Robbert Reijnen, Yingqian Zhang, Tom Catshoek, Daniël Vos, Sicco Verwer, Fynn Schmitt-Ulms, André Hottung, Tapan Shah, Meinolf Sellmann, Kevin Tierney, Carl Perreault-Lafleur, Caroline Leboeuf, Federico Bobbio, Justine Pepin, Warley Almeida Silva, Ricardo Gama, Hugo L. Fernandes, Martin Zaefferer, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Ekhine Irurozki. The First AI4TSP Competition: Learning to Solve Stochastic Routing Problems. Artificial Intelligence, 319:103918, 2023.
bib | DOI ]
This paper reports on the first international competition on AI for the traveling salesman problem (TSP) at the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence 2021 (IJCAI-21). The TSP is one of the classical combinatorial optimization problems, with many variants inspired by real-world applications. This first competition asked the participants to develop algorithms to solve an orienteering problem with stochastic weights and time windows (OPSWTW). It focused on two learning approaches: surrogate-based optimization and deep reinforcement learning. In this paper, we describe the problem, the competition setup, and the winning methods, and give an overview of the results. The winning methods described in this work have advanced the state-of-the-art in using AI for stochastic routing problems. Overall, by organizing this competition we have introduced routing problems as an interesting problem setting for AI researchers. The simulator of the problem has been made open-source and can be used by other researchers as a benchmark for new learning-based methods. The instances and code for the competition are available at https://github.com/paulorocosta/ai-for-tsp-competition.
Keywords: AI for TSP competition, Travelling salesman problem, Routing problem, Stochastic combinatorial optimization, Surrogate-based optimization, Deep reinforcement learning
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Christian Blum. Beam-ACO—Hybridizing Ant Colony Optimization with Beam Search: An Application to Open Shop Scheduling. Computers & Operations Research, 32(6):1565–1591, 2005.
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Christian Blum. Beam-ACO for simple assembly line balancing. INFORMS Journal on Computing, 20(4):618–627, 2008.
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[144]
Christian Blum, María J. Blesa, and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Beam search for the longest common subsequence problem. Computers & Operations Research, 36(12):3178–3186, 2009.
bib | DOI ]
The longest common subsequence problem is a classical string problem that concerns finding the common part of a set of strings. It has several important applications, for example, pattern recognition or computational biology. Most research efforts up to now have focused on solving this problem optimally. In comparison, only few works exist dealing with heuristic approaches. In this work we present a deterministic beam search algorithm. The results show that our algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art approaches not only in solution quality but often also in computation time.
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Christian Blum, Borja Calvo, and María J. Blesa. FrogCOL and FrogMIS: New Decentralized Algorithms for Finding Large Independent Sets in Graphs. Swarm Intelligence, 9(2-3):205–227, 2015.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: irace
[146]
Christian Blum and Marco Dorigo. The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part B, 34(2):1161–1172, 2004.
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Christian Blum and Marco Dorigo. Search Bias in Ant Colony Optimization: On the Role of Competition-Balanced Systems. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 9(2):159–174, 2005.
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Christian Blum and Gabriela Ochoa. A comparative analysis of two matheuristics by means of merged local optima networks. European Journal of Operational Research, 290(1):36–56, 2021.
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Christian Blum, Pedro Pinacho, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and José A. Lozano. Construct, Merge, Solve & Adapt: A New General Algorithm for Combinatorial Optimization. Computers & Operations Research, 68:75–88, 2016.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: irace, CMSA
[150]
Christian Blum, Jakob Puchinger, Günther R. Raidl, and Andrea Roli. Hybrid Metaheuristics in Combinatorial Optimization: A Survey. Applied Soft Computing, 11(6):4135–4151, 2011.
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Christian Blum and Andrea Roli. Metaheuristics in Combinatorial Optimization: Overview and Conceptual Comparison. ACM Computing Surveys, 35(3):268–308, 2003.
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Christian Blum and M. Sampels. An Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Shop Scheduling Problems. Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 3(3):285–308, 2004.
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[153]
Christian Blum, M. Yábar Vallès, and María J. Blesa. An ant colony optimization algorithm for DNA sequencing by hybridization. Computers & Operations Research, 35(11):3620–3635, 2008.
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Andrea F. Bocchese, Chris Fawcett, Mauro Vallati, Alfonso E. Gerevini, and Holger H. Hoos. Performance robustness of AI planners in the 2014 International Planning Competition. AI Communications, 31(6):445–463, December 2018.
bib | DOI ]
Solver competitions have been used in many areas of AI to assess the current state of the art and guide future research and development. AI planning is no exception, and the International Planning Competition (IPC) has been frequently run for nearly two decades. Due to the organisational and computational burden involved in running these competitions, solvers are generally compared using a single homogeneous hardware and software environment for all competitors. To what extent does the specific choice of hardware and software environment have an effect on solver performance, and is that effect distributed equally across the competing solvers? In this work, we use the competing planners and benchmark instance sets from the 2014 IPC to investigate these two questions. We recreate the 2014 IPC Optimal and Agile tracks on two distinct hardware environments and eight distinct software environments. We show that solver performance varies significantly based on the hardware and software environment, and that this variation is not equal for all planners. Furthermore, the observed variation is sufficient to change the competition rankings, including the top-ranked planners for some tracks.
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Marko Bohanec. Decision making: a computer-science and information-technology viewpoint. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems, 7(2):22–37, 2009.
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Let B be a set of n axis-parallel boxes in Rd such that each box has a corner at the origin and the other corner in the positive quadrant of Rd, and let k be a positive integer. We study the problem of selecting k boxes in B that maximize the volume of the union of the selected boxes. This research is motivated by applications in skyline queries for databases and in multicriteria optimization, where the problem is known as the hypervolume subset selection problem. It is known that the problem can be solved in polynomial time in the plane, while the best known running time in any dimension d ≥3 is Ω(nk). We show that: The problem is NP-hard already in 3 dimensions. In 3 dimensions, we break the bound Ω(nk), by providing an nO(√(k)) algorithm. For any constant dimension d, we present an efficient polynomial-time approximation scheme.
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Recently, there has been a large interest in set-based evolutionary algorithms for multi objective optimization. They are based on the definition of indicators that characterize the quality of the current population while being compliant with the concept of Pareto-optimality. It has been shown that the hypervolume indicator, which measures the dominated volume in the objective space, enables the design of efficient search algorithms and, at the same time, opens up opportunities to express user preferences in the search by means of weight functions. The present paper contains the necessary theoretical foundations and corresponding algorithms to (i) select appropriate weight functions, to (ii) transform user preferences into weight functions and to (iii) efficiently evaluate the weighted hypervolume indicator through Monte Carlo sampling. The algorithm W-HypE, which implements the previous concepts, is introduced, and the effectiveness of the search, directed towards the user's preferred solutions, is shown using an extensive set of experiments including the necessary statistical performance assessment.
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Many-objective problems represent a major challenge in the field of evolutionary multiobjective optimization, in terms of search efficiency, computational cost, decision making, visualization, and so on. This leads to various research questions, in particular whether certain objectives can be omitted in order to overcome or at least diminish the difficulties that arise when many, that is, more than three, objective functions are involved. This study addresses this question from different perspectives. First, we investigate how adding or omitting objectives affects the problem characteristics and propose a general notion of conflict between objective sets as a theoretical foundation for objective reduction. Second, we present both exact and heuristic algorithms to systematically reduce the number of objectives, while preserving as much as possible of the dominance structure of the underlying optimization problem. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed objective reduction method in the context of both decision making and search for a radar waveform application as well as for well-known test functions.
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The aim of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce a novel general estimation of distribution algorithm to deal with permutation-based optimization problems. The algorithm is based on the use of a probabilistic model for permutations called the generalized Mallows model. In order to prove the potential of the proposed algorithm, our second aim is to solve the permutation flowshop scheduling problem. A hybrid approach consisting of the new estimation of distribution algorithm and a variable neighborhood search is proposed. Conducted experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to outperform the state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, from the 220 benchmark instances tested, the proposed hybrid approach obtains new best known results in 152 cases. An in-depth study of the results suggests that the successful performance of the introduced approach is due to the ability of the generalized Mallows estimation of distribution algorithm to discover promising regions in the search space.
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In this paper we consider the problem of finding the efficient frontier associated with the standard mean-variance portfolio optimisation model. We extend the standard model to include cardinality constraints that limit a portfolio to have a specified number of assets, and to impose limits on the proportion of the portfolio held in a given asset (if any of the asset is held). We illustrate the differences that arise in the shape of this efficient frontier when such constraints are present. We present three heuristic algorithms based upon genetic algorithms, tabu search and simulated annealing for finding the cardinality constrained efficient frontier. Computational results are presented for five data sets involving up to 225 assets. Scope and purpose The standard Markowitz mean-variance approach to portfolio selection involves tracing out an efficient frontier, a continuous curve illustrating the tradeoff between return and risk (variance). This frontier can be easily found via quadratic programming. This approach is well-known and widely applied. However, for practical purposes, it may be desirable to limit the number of assets in a portfolio, as well as imposing limits on the proportion of the portfolio devoted to any particular asset. If such constraints exist, the problem of finding the efficient frontier becomes much harder. This paper illustrates how, in the presence of such constraints, the efficient frontier becomes discontinuous. Three heuristic techniques are applied to the problem of finding this efficient frontier and computational results presented for a number of data sets which are made publicly available.
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bib | DOI ]
Evolutionary algorithms are widely used for solving multiobjective optimization problems but are often criticized because of a large number of function evaluations needed. Approximations, especially function approximations, also referred to as surrogates or metamodels are commonly used in the literature to reduce the computation time. This paper presents a survey of 45 different recent algorithms proposed in the literature between 2008 and 2016 to handle computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problems. Several algorithms are discussed based on what kind of an approximation such as problem, function or fitness approximation they use. Most emphasis is given to function approximation-based algorithms. We also compare these algorithms based on different criteria such as metamodeling technique and evolutionary algorithm used, type and dimensions of the problem solved, handling constraints, training time and the type of evolution control. Furthermore, we identify and discuss some promising elements and major issues among algorithms in the literature related to using an approximation and numerical settings used. In addition, we discuss selecting an algorithm to solve a given computationally expensive multiobjective optimization problem based on the dimensions in both objective and decision spaces and the computation budget available.
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Christian Cintrano, Javier Ferrer, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Enrique Alba. Hybridization of Evolutionary Operators with Elitist Iterated Racing for the Simulation Optimization of Traffic Lights Programs. Evolutionary Computation, 31(1):31–51, 2023.
bib | DOI ]
In the traffic light scheduling problem the evaluation of candidate solutions requires the simulation of a process under various (traffic) scenarios. Thus, good solutions should not only achieve good objective function values, but they must be robust (low variance) across all different scenarios. Previous work has shown that combining IRACE with evolutionary operators is effective for this task due to the power of evolutionary operators in numerical optimization. In this paper, we further explore the hybridization of evolutionary operators and the elitist iterated racing of IRACE for the simulation-optimization of traffic light programs. We review previous works from the literature to find the evolutionary operators performing the best when facing this problem to propose new hybrid algorithms. We evaluate our approach over a realistic case study derived from the traffic network of Málaga (Spain) with 275 traffic lights that should be scheduled optimally. The experimental analysis reveals that the hybrid algorithm comprising IRACE plus differential evolution offers statistically better results than the other algorithms when the budget of simulations is low. In contrast, IRACE performs better than the hybrids for high simulations budget, although the optimization time is much longer.
Keywords: irace, Simulation optimization, Uncertainty, Traffic light planning
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Kalyanmoy Deb, Manikanth Mohan, and Shikhar Mishra. Evaluating the ε-domination based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for a quick computation of Pareto-optimal solutions. Evolutionary Computation, 13(4):501–525, December 2005.
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Keywords: ε-dominance, ε-MOEA
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Kalyanmoy Deb and Santosh Tiwari. Omni-optimizer: A generic evolutionary algorithm for single and multi-objective optimization. European Journal of Operational Research, 185(3):1062–1087, 2008.
bib | DOI ]
Archiving method with epsilon dominance and density in the decision and objective spaces
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Kalyanmoy Deb, Ling Zhu, and Sandeep Kulkarni. Handling Multiple Scenarios in Evolutionary Multi-Objective Numerical Optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 22(6):920–933, 2018.
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Solutions to most practical numerical optimization problems must be evaluated for their performance over a number of different loading or operating conditions, which we refer here as scenarios. Therefore, a meaningful and resilient optimal solution must be such that it remains feasible under all scenarios and performs close to an individual optimal solution corresponding to each scenario. Despite its practical importance, multi-scenario consideration has received a lukewarm attention, particularly in the context of multi-objective optimization. The usual practice is to optimize for the worst-case scenario. In this paper, we review existing methodologies in this direction and set our goal to suggest a new and potential population-based method for handling multiple scenarios by defining scenario-wise domination principle and scenario-wise diversity-preserving operators. To evaluate, the proposed method is applied to a number of numerical test problems and engineering design problems with a detail explanation of the obtained results and compared with an existing method. This first systematic evolutionary based multi-scenario, multiobjective, optimization study on numerical problems indicates that multiple scenarios can be handled in an integrated manner using an EMO framework to find a well-balanced compromise set of solutions to multiple scenarios and maintain a tradeoff among multiple objectives. In comparison to an existing serial multiple optimization approach, the proposed approach finds a set of compromised trade-off solutions simultaneously. An achievement of multi-objective trade-off and multi-scenario trade-off is algorithmically challenging, but due to its practical appeal, further research and application must be spent.
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Keywords: BOPS, CEGO
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Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Leslie Pérez Cáceres. ACVIZ: A Tool for the Visual Analysis of the Configuration of Algorithms with irace. Operations Research Perspectives, 8:100186, 2021.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
This paper introduces acviz, a tool that helps to analyze the automatic configuration of algorithms with irace. It provides a visual representation of the configuration process, allowing users to extract useful information, e.g. how the configurations evolve over time. When test data is available, acviz also shows the performance of each configuration on the test instances. Using this visualization, users can analyze and compare the quality of the resulting configurations and observe the performance differences on training and test instances.
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Keywords: Evolutionary multi-objective optimization, Production planning, Robust optimization, Simulation-based optimization, Uncertainty modelling
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Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Combinatorial optimization, Production planning, Simulation-based optimization, Uncertainty modelling
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Juan Esteban Diaz and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Incorporating Decision-Maker's Preferences into the Automatic Configuration of Bi-Objective Optimisation Algorithms. European Journal of Operational Research, 289(3):1209–1222, 2021.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
Automatic configuration (AC) methods are increasingly used to tune and design optimisation algorithms for problems with multiple objectives. Most AC methods use unary quality indicators, which assign a single scalar value to an approximation to the Pareto front, to compare the performance of different optimisers. These quality indicators, however, imply preferences beyond Pareto-optimality that may differ from those of the decision maker (DM). Although it is possible to incorporate DM's preferences into quality indicators, e.g., by means of the weighted hypervolume indicator (HVw), expressing preferences in terms of weight function is not always intuitive nor an easy task for a DM, in particular, when comparing the stochastic outcomes of several algorithm configurations. A more visual approach to compare such outcomes is the visualisation of their empirical attainment functions (EAFs) differences. This paper proposes using such visualisations as a way of eliciting information about regions of the objective space that are preferred by the DM. We present a method to convert the information about EAF differences into a HVw that will assign higher quality values to approximation fronts that result in EAF differences preferred by the DM. We show that the resulting HVw may be used by an AC method to guide the configuration of multi-objective optimisers according to the preferences of the DM. We evaluate the proposed approach on a well-known benchmark problem. Finally, we apply our approach to re-configuring, according to different DM's preferences, a multi-objective optimiser tackling a real-world production planning problem arising in the manufacturing industry.
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Benjamin Doerr, Christian Gießen, Carsten Witt, and Jing Yang. The (1+λ) evolutionary algorithm with self-adjusting mutation rate. Algorithmica, 81(2):593–631, 2019.
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Benjamin Doerr, Daniel Johannsen, and Carola Winzen. Multiplicative drift analysis. Algorithmica, 64(4):673–697, 2012.
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Jean-Paul Doignon, Aleksandar Pekeč, and Michel Regenwetter. The repeated insertion model for rankings: Missing link between two subset choice models. Psychometrika, 69(1):33–54, March 2004.
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Several probabilistic models for subset choice have been proposed in the literature, for example, to explain approval voting data. We show that Marley et al.'s latent scale model is subsumed by Falmagne and Regenwetter's size-independent model, in the sense that every choice probability distribution generated by the former can also be explained by the latter. Our proof relies on the construction of a probabilistic ranking model which we label the “repeated insertion model”. This model is a special case of Marden's orthogonal contrast model class and, in turn, includes the classical Mallows φ-model as a special case. We explore its basic properties as well as its relationship to Fligner and Verducci's multistage ranking model.
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Elizabeth D. Dolan and Jorge J. Moré. Benchmarking optimization software with performance profiles. Mathematical Programming, 91(2):201–213, 2002.
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This methodology has been criticized in https://doi.org/10.1145/2950048
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20th IFAC World Congress
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http://mat.tepper.cmu.edu/blog/?p=1695
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We present a new hybrid approach to interactive evolutionary multi-objective optimization that uses a partial preference order to act as the fitness function in a customized genetic algorithm. We periodically send solutions to the decision maker (DM) for her evaluation and use the resulting preference information to form preference cones consisting of inferior solutions. The cones allow us to implicitly rank solutions that the DM has not considered. This technique avoids assuming an exact form for the preference function, but does assume that the preference function is quasi-concave. This paper describes the genetic algorithm and demonstrates its performance on the multi-objective knapsack problem.
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After growing up together, and mostly growing apart in the second half of the 20th century, the fields of artificial intelligence (AI), cognitive science, and neuroscience are reconverging on a shared view of the computational foundations of intelligence that promotes valuable cross-disciplinary exchanges on questions, methods, and results. We chart advances over the past several decades that address challenges of perception and action under uncertainty through the lens of computation. Advances include the development of representations and inferential procedures for large-scale probabilistic inference and machinery for enabling reflection and decisions about tradeoffs in effort, precision, and timeliness of computations. These tools are deployed toward the goal of computational rationality: identifying decisions with highest expected utility, while taking into consideration the costs of computation in complex real-world problems in which most relevant calculations can only be approximated. We highlight key concepts with examples that show the potential for interchange between computer science, cognitive science, and neuroscience.
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Intuitionistic fuzzy sets describe information from the three aspects of membership degree, non-membership degree and hesitation degree, which has more practical significance when uncertainty pervades qualitative decision problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of ranking intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations (IFPRs) based on various non-linear utility functions. First, we transform IFPRs into their isomorphic interval-value fuzzy preference relations (IVFPRs), and utilise non-linear utility functions, such as parabolic, S-shaped, and hyperbolic absolute risk aversion, to fit the true value of a decision-maker's judgement. Ultimately, the optimization ordering models for the membership and non-membership of IVFPRs based on utility function are constructed, with objective function aiming at minimizing the distance deviation between the multiplicative consistency ideal judgment and the actual judgment, represented by utility function, subject to the decision-maker's utility constraints. The proposed models ensure that more factual and optimal ranking of alternative is acquired, avoiding information distortion caused by the operations of intervals. Second, by introducing a non-Archimedean infinitesimal, we establish the optimization ordering model for IFPRs with the priority of utility or deviation, which realises the goal of prioritising solutions under multi-objective programming. Subsequently, we verify that a close connection exists between the ranking for membership and non-membership degree IVFPRs. Comparison analyses with existing approaches are summarized to demonstrate that the proposed models have advantage in dealing with group decision making problems with IFPRs.
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Multi-objective optimization has recently emerged as a useful technique in sustainability analysis, as it can assist in the study of optimal trade-off solutions that balance several criteria. The main limitation of multi-objective optimization is that its computational burden grows in size with the number of objectives. This computational barrier is critical in environmental applications in which decision-makers seek to minimize simultaneously several environmental indicators of concern. With the aim to overcome this limitation, this paper introduces a systematic method for reducing the number of objectives in multi-objective optimization with emphasis on environmental problems. The approach presented relies on a novel mixed-integer linear programming formulation that minimizes the error of omitting objectives. We test the capabilities of this technique through two environmental problems of different nature in which we attempt to minimize a set of life cycle assessment impacts. Numerical examples demonstrate that certain environmental metrics tend to behave in a non-conflicting manner, which makes it possible to reduce the dimension of the problem without losing information.
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To the best of our knowledge, this paper describes the first ant colony optimization (ACO) approach applied to nurse scheduling, analyzing a dynamic regional problem which is currently under discussion at the Vienna hospital compound. Each day, pool nurses have to be assigned for the following days to public hospitals while taking into account a variety of soft and hard constraints regarding working date and time, working patterns, nurses qualifications, nurses and hospitals preferences, as well as costs. Extensive computational experiments based on a four week simulation period were used to evaluate three different scenarios varying the number of nurses and hospitals for six different hospitals demand intensities. The results of our simulations and optimizations reveal that the proposed ACO algorithm achieves highly significant improvements compared to a greedy assignment algorithm.
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In Operational Research practice there are almost always alternative paths that can be followed in the modeling and problem solving process. Path dependence refers to the impact of the path on the outcome of the process. The steps of the path include, e.g. forming the problem solving team, the framing and structuring of the problem, the choice of model, the order in which the different parts of the model are specified and solved, and the way in which data or preferences are collected. We identify and discuss seven possibly interacting origins or drivers of path dependence: systemic origins, learning, procedure, behavior, motivation, uncertainty, and external environment. We provide several ideas on how to cope with path dependence.
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We point out the need for Behavioral Operational Research (BOR) in advancing the practice of OR. So far, in OR behavioral phenomena have been acknowledged only in behavioral decision theory but behavioral issues are always present when supporting human problem solving by modeling. Behavioral effects can relate to the group interaction and communication when facilitating with OR models as well as to the possibility of procedural mistakes and cognitive biases. As an illustrative example we use well known system dynamics studies related to the understanding of accumulation. We show that one gets completely opposite results depending on the way the phenomenon is described and how the questions are phrased and graphs used. The results suggest that OR processes are highly sensitive to various behavioral effects. As a result, we need to pay attention to the way we communicate about models as they are being increasingly used in addressing important problems like climate change.
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The customer order scheduling problem (COSP) is defined as to determine the sequence of tasks to satisfy the demand of customers who order several types of products produced on a single machine. A setup is required whenever a product type is launched. The objective of the scheduling problem is to minimize the average customer order flow time. Since the customer order scheduling problem is known to be strongly NP-hard, we solve it using four major metaheuristics and compare the performance of these heuristics, namely, simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, tabu search, and ant colony optimization. These are selected to represent various characteristics of metaheuristics: nature-inspired vs. artificially created, population-based vs. local search, etc. A set of problems is generated to compare the solution quality and computational efforts of these heuristics. Results of the experimentation show that tabu search and ant colony perform better for large problems whereas simulated annealing performs best in small-size problems. Some conclusions are also drawn on the interactions between various problem parameters and the performance of the heuristics.
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The team orienteering problem (TOP) involves finding a set of paths from the starting point to the ending point such that the total collected reward received from visiting a subset of locations is maximized and the length of each path is restricted by a pre-specified limit. In this paper, an ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is proposed for the team orienteering problem. Four methods, i.e., the sequential, deterministic-concurrent and random-concurrent and simultaneous methods, are proposed to construct candidate solutions in the framework of ACO. We compare these methods according to the results obtained on well-known problems from the literature. Finally, we compare the algorithm with several existing algorithms. The results show that our algorithm is promising.
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In this article, we build upon previous work on designing informative and efficient Exploratory Landscape Analysis features for characterizing problems' landscapes and show their effectiveness in automatically constructing algorithm selection models in continuous black-box optimization problems. Focusing on algorithm performance results of the COCO platform of several years, we construct a representative set of high-performing complementary solvers and present an algorithm selection model that, compared to the portfolio's single best solver, on average requires less than half of the resources for solving a given problem. Therefore, there is a huge gain in efficiency compared to classical ensemble methods combined with an increased insight into problem characteristics and algorithm properties by using informative features. The model acts on the assumption that the function set of the Black-Box Optimization Benchmark is representative enough for practical applications. The model allows for selecting the best suited optimization algorithm within the considered set for unseen problems prior to the optimization itself based on a small sample of function evaluations. Note that such a sample can even be reused for the initial population of an evolutionary (optimization) algorithm so that even the feature costs become negligible.
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Keywords: F-race
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Safe learning and optimization deals with learning and optimization problems that avoid, as much as possible, the evaluation of non-safe input points, which are solutions, policies, or strategies that cause an irrecoverable loss (e.g., breakage of a machine or equipment, or life threat). Although a comprehensive survey of safe reinforcement learning algorithms was published in 2015, a number of new algorithms have been proposed thereafter, and related works in active learning and in optimization were not considered. This paper reviews those algorithms from a number of domains including reinforcement learning, Gaussian process regression and classification, evolutionary algorithms, and active learning. We provide the fundamental concepts on which the reviewed algorithms are based and a characterization of the individual algorithms. We conclude by explaining how the algorithms are connected and suggestions for future research.
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We propose a practical Bayesian optimization method over sets, to minimize a black-box function that takes a set as a single input. Because set inputs are permutation-invariant, traditional Gaussian process-based Bayesian optimization strategies which assume vector inputs can fall short. To address this, we develop a Bayesian optimization method with set kernel that is used to build surrogate functions. This kernel accumulates similarity over set elements to enforce permutation-invariance, but this comes at a greater computational cost. To reduce this burden, we propose two key components: (i) a more efficient approximate set kernel which is still positive-definite and is an unbiased estimator of the true set kernel with upper-bounded variance in terms of the number of subsamples, (ii) a constrained acquisition function optimization over sets, which uses symmetry of the feasible region that defines a set input. Finally, we present several numerical experiments which demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods.
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Keywords: ParEGO, online, metamodel
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Joshua D. Knowles. Closed-loop evolutionary multiobjective optimization. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 4:77–91, 2009.
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Artificial evolution has been used for more than 50 years as a method of optimization in engineering, operations research and computational intelligence. In closed-loop evolution (a term used by the statistician, George Box) or, equivalently, evolutionary experimentation (Ingo Rechenberg's terminology), the “phenotypes” are evaluated in the real world by conducting a physical experiment, whilst selection and breeding is simulated. Well-known early work on artificial evolution — design engineering problems in fluid dynamics, and chemical plant process optimization — was carried out in this experimental mode. More recently, the closed-loop approach has been successfully used in much evolvable hardware and evolutionary robotics research, and in some microbiology and biochemistry applications. In this article, several further new targets for closed-loop evolutionary and multiobjective optimization are considered. Four case studies from my own collaborative work are described: (i) instrument optimization in analytical biochemistry; (ii) finding effective drug combinations in vitro; (iii) onchip synthetic biomolecule design; and (iv) improving chocolate production processes. Accurate simulation in these applications is not possible due to complexity or a lack of adequate analytical models. In these and other applications discussed, optimizing experimentally brings with it several challenges: noise; nuisance factors; ephemeral resource constraints; expensive evaluations, and evaluations that must be done in (large) batches. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are largely equal to these vagaries, whilst modern multiobjective EAs also enable tradeoffs among conflicting optimization goals to be explored. Nevertheless, principles from other disciplines, such as statistics, Design of Experiments, machine learning and global optimization are also relevant to aspects of the closed-loop problem, and may inspire futher development of multiobjective EAs.
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Joshua D. Knowles and David Corne. Approximating the Nondominated Front Using the Pareto Archived Evolution Strategy. Evolutionary Computation, 8(2):149–172, 2000.
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Proposed PAES
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Proposed to use S-metric (hypervolume metric) for environmental selection
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This paper considers heuristics for the well-known resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP). It provides an update of our survey which was published in 2000. We summarize and categorize a large number of heuristics that have recently been proposed in the literature. Most of these heuristics are then evaluated in a computational study and compared on the basis of our standardized experimental design. Based on the computational results we discuss features of good heuristics. The paper closes with some remarks on our test design and a summary of the recent developments in research on heuristics for the RCPSP.
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Spatial queries in high-dimensional spaces have been studied extensively. Among them, nearest neighbor queries are important in many settings, including spatial databases (Find the k closest cities) and multimedia databases (Find the k most similar images). Previous analyses have concluded that nearest-neighbor search is hopeless in high dimensions due to the notorious "curse of dimensionality". We show that this may be overpessimistic. We show that what determines the search performance (at least for R-tree-like structures) is the intrinsic dimensionality of the data set and not the dimensionality of the address space (referred to as the embedding dimensionality). The typical (and often implicit) assumption in many previous studies is that the data is uniformly distributed, with independence between attributes. However, real data sets overwhelmingly disobey these assumptions; rather, they typically are skewed and exhibit intrinsic ("fractal") dimensionalities that are much lower than their embedding dimension, e.g. due to subtle dependencies between attributes. We show how the Hausdorff and Correlation fractal dimensions of a data set can yield extremely accurate formulas that can predict the I/O performance to within one standard deviation on multiple real and synthetic data sets.
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Pekka Korhonen, Kari Silvennoinen, Jyrki Wallenius, and Anssi Öörni. Can a linear value function explain choices? An experimental study. European Journal of Operational Research, 219(2):360–367, June 2012.
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We investigate in a simple bi-criteria experimental study, whether subjects are consistent with a linear value function while making binary choices. Many inconsistencies appeared in our experiment. However, the impact of inconsistencies on the linearity vs. non-linearity of the value function was minor. Moreover, a linear value function seems to predict choices for bi-criteria problems quite well. This ability to predict is independent of whether the value function is diagnosed linear or not. Inconsistencies in responses did not necessarily change the original diagnosis of the form of the value function. Our findings have implications for the design and development of decision support tools for Multiple Criteria Decision Making problems.
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Bioinspired algorithms, such as evolutionary algorithms and ant colony optimization, are widely used for different combinatorial optimization problems. These algorithms rely heavily on the use of randomness and are hard to understand from a theoretical point of view. This paper contributes to the theoretical analysis of ant colony optimization and studies this type of algorithm on one of the most prominent combinatorial optimization problems, namely the traveling salesperson problem (TSP). We present a new construction graph and show that it has a stronger local property than one commonly used for constructing solutions of the TSP. The rigorous runtime analysis for two ant colony optimization algorithms, based on these two construction procedures, shows that they lead to good approximation in expected polynomial time on random instances. Furthermore, we point out in which situations our algorithms get trapped in local optima and show where the use of the right amount of heuristic information is provably beneficial.
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Application of heuristic solution procedures to the practical problem of project scheduling has previously been studied by numerous researchers. However, there is little consensus about their findings, and the practicing manager is currently at a loss as to which scheduling rule to use. Furthermore, since no categorization process was developed, it is assumed that once a rule is selected it must be used throughout the whole project. This research breaks away from this tradition by providing a categorization process based on two powerful project summary measures. The first measure identifies the location of the peak of total resource requirements and the second measure identifies the rate of utilization of each resource type. The performance of the rules are classified according to values of these two measures, and it is shown that a rule introduced by this research performs significantly better on most categories of projects.
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Performance of machine learning algorithms depends critically on identifying a good set of hyperparameters. While recent approaches use Bayesian optimization to adaptively select configurations, we focus on speeding up random search through adaptive resource allocation and early-stopping. We formulate hyperparameter optimization as a pure-exploration non-stochastic infinite-armed bandit problem where a predefined resource like iterations, data samples, or features is allocated to randomly sampled configurations. We introduce a novel algorithm, our algorithm, for this framework and analyze its theoretical properties, providing several desirable guarantees. Furthermore, we compare our algorithm with popular Bayesian optimization methods on a suite of hyperparameter optimization problems. We observe that our algorithm can provide over an order-of-magnitude speedup over our competitor set on a variety of deep-learning and kernel-based learning problems.
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Most multi-objective optimisation algorithms maintain an archive explicitly or implicitly during their search. Such an archive can be solely used to store high-quality solutions presented to the decision maker, but in many cases may participate in the search process (e.g., as the population in evolutionary computation). Over the last two decades, archiving, the process of comparing new solutions with previous ones and deciding how to update the archive/population, stands as an important issue in evolutionary multi-objective optimisation (EMO). This is evidenced by constant efforts from the community on developing various effective archiving methods, ranging from conventional Pareto-based methods to more recent indicator-based and decomposition-based ones. However, the focus of these efforts is on empirical performance comparison in terms of specific quality indicators; there is lack of systematic study of archiving methods from a general theoretical perspective. In this paper, we attempt to conduct a systematic overview of multi-objective archiving, in the hope of paving the way to understand archiving algorithms from a holistic perspective of theory and practice, and more importantly providing a guidance on how to design theoretically desirable and practically useful archiving algorithms. In doing so, we also present that archiving algorithms based on weakly Pareto compliant indicators (e.g., ε-indicator), as long as designed properly, can achieve the same theoretical desirables as archivers based on Pareto compliant indicators (e.g., hypervolume indicator). Such desirables include the property limit-optimal, the limit form of the possible optimal property that a bounded archiving algorithm can have with respect to the most general form of superiority between solution sets.
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This paper discusses simple local search approaches for approximating the efficient set of multiobjective combinatorial optimization problems. We focus on algorithms defined by a neighborhood structure and a dominance relation that iteratively improve an archive of nondominated solutions. Such methods are referred to as dominance-based multiobjective local search. We first provide a concise overview of existing algorithms, and we propose a model trying to unify them through a fine-grained decomposition. The main problem-independent search components of dominance relation, solution selection, neighborhood exploration and archiving are largely discussed. Then, a number of state-of-the-art and original strategies are experimented on solving a permutation flowshop scheduling problem and a traveling salesman problem, both on a two- and a three-objective formulation. Experimental results and a statistical comparison are reported in the paper, and some directions for future research are highlighted.
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A simple ACO algorithm called λ-MMAS for dynamic variants of the single-destination shortest paths problem is studied by rigorous runtime analyses. Building upon previous results for the special case of 1-MMAS, it is studied to what extent an enlarged colony using λ ants per vertex helps in tracking an oscillating optimum. It is shown that easy cases of oscillations can be tracked by a constant number of ants. However, the paper also identifies more involved oscillations that with overwhelming probability cannot be tracked with any polynomial-size colony. Finally, parameters of dynamic shortest-path problems which make the optimum difficult to track are discussed. Experiments illustrate theoretical findings and conjectures.
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Andrea Lodi, Silvano Martello, and Daniele Vigo. TSpack: a unified tabu search code for multi-dimensional bin packing problems. Annals of Operations Research, 131(1-4):203–213, 2004.
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Andrea Lodi and Giulia Zarpellon. On Learning and Branching: A Survey. TOP, 25:207–236, 2017.
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Evolutionary optimization of antennas for NASA
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Manuel López-Ibáñez and Christian Blum. Beam-ACO for the travelling salesman problem with time windows. Computers & Operations Research, 37(9):1570–1583, 2010.
bib | DOI ]
The travelling salesman problem with time windows is a difficult optimization problem that arises, for example, in logistics. This paper deals with the minimization of the travel-cost. For solving this problem, this paper proposes a Beam-ACO algorithm, which is a hybrid method combining ant colony optimization with beam search. In general, Beam-ACO algorithms heavily rely on accurate and computationally inexpensive bounding information for differentiating between partial solutions. This work uses stochastic sampling as a useful alternative. An extensive experimental evaluation on seven benchmark sets from the literature shows that the proposed Beam-ACO algorithm is currently a state-of-the-art technique for the travelling salesman problem with time windows when travel-cost optimization is concerned.
Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Travelling salesman problem with time windows, Hybridization
[832]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, Christian Blum, Jeffrey W. Ohlmann, and Barrett W. Thomas. The Travelling Salesman Problem with Time Windows: Adapting Algorithms from Travel-time to Makespan Optimization. Applied Soft Computing, 13(9):3806–3815, 2013.
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Manuel López-Ibáñez, Jürgen Branke, and Luís Paquete. Reproducibility in Evolutionary Computation. Arxiv preprint arXiv:20102.03380 [cs.AI], 2021.
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Experimental studies are prevalent in Evolutionary Computation (EC), and concerns about the reproducibility and replicability of such studies have increased in recent times, reflecting similar concerns in other scientific fields. In this article, we suggest a classification of different types of reproducibility that refines the badge system of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) adopted by TELO. We discuss, within the context of EC, the different types of reproducibility as well as the concepts of artifact and measurement, which are crucial for claiming reproducibility. We identify cultural and technical obstacles to reproducibility in the EC field. Finally, we provide guidelines and suggest tools that may help to overcome some of these reproducibility obstacles.
Keywords: Evolutionary Computation, Reproducibility, Empirical study, Benchmarking
[834]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, Jürgen Branke, and Luís Paquete. Reproducibility in Evolutionary Computation. ACM Transactions on Evolutionary Learning and Optimization, 1(4):1–21, 2021.
bib | DOI | epub ]
Experimental studies are prevalent in Evolutionary Computation (EC), and concerns about the reproducibility and replicability of such studies have increased in recent times, reflecting similar concerns in other scientific fields. In this article, we suggest a classification of different types of reproducibility that refines the badge system of the Association of Computing Machinery (ACM) adopted by TELO. We discuss, within the context of EC, the different types of reproducibility as well as the concepts of artifact and measurement, which are crucial for claiming reproducibility. We identify cultural and technical obstacles to reproducibility in the EC field. Finally, we provide guidelines and suggest tools that may help to overcome some of these reproducibility obstacles.
Keywords: Evolutionary Computation, Reproducibility, Empirical study, Benchmarking
[835]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Leslie Pérez Cáceres, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari. The irace Package: Iterated Racing for Automatic Algorithm Configuration. Operations Research Perspectives, 3:43–58, 2016.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
[836]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, Marie-Eléonore Kessaci, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Design of Hybrid Metaheuristics from Algorithmic Components. Submitted, 2017.
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[837]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, Luís Paquete, and Thomas Stützle. Hybrid Population-based Algorithms for the Bi-objective Quadratic Assignment Problem. Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 5(1):111–137, 2006.
bib | DOI ]
We present variants of an ant colony optimization (MO-ACO) algorithm and of an evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) for tackling multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems, hybridized with an iterative improvement algorithm and the robust tabu search algorithm. The performance of the resulting hybrid stochastic local search (SLS) algorithms is experimentally investigated for the bi-objective quadratic assignment problem (bQAP) and compared against repeated applications of the underlying local search algorithms for several scalarizations. The experiments consider structured and unstructured bQAP instances with various degrees of correlation between the flow matrices. We do a systematic experimental analysis of the algorithms using outperformance relations and the attainment functions methodology to asses differences in the performance of the algorithms. The experimental results show the usefulness of the hybrid algorithms if the available computation time is not too limited and identify SPEA2 hybridized with very short tabu search runs as the most promising variant.
[838]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, Leslie Pérez Cáceres, and Thomas Stützle. irace: A Tool for the Automatic Configuration of Algorithms. International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS) News, 14(2):30–32, June 2020.
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[839]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter. Ant Colony Optimisation for the Optimal Control of Pumps in Water Distribution Networks. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 134(4):337–346, 2008.
bib | DOI | epub ]
Reducing energy consumption of water distribution networks has never had more significance than today. The greatest energy savings can be obtained by careful scheduling of operation of pumps. Schedules can be defined either implicitly, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank levels, or explicitly by specifying the time during which each pump is on/off. The traditional representation of explicit schedules is a string of binary values with each bit representing pump on/off status during a particular time interval. In this paper a new explicit representation is presented. It is based on time controlled triggers, where the maximum number of pump switches is specified beforehand. In this representation a pump schedule is divided into a series of integers with each integer representing the number of hours for which a pump is active/inactive. This reduces the number of potential schedules (search space) compared to the binary representation. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic meta-heuristic for combinatorial optimization problems that is inspired by the foraging behavior of some species of ants. In this paper, an application of the ACO framework was developed for the optimal scheduling of pumps. The proposed representation was adapted to an ant colony Optimization framework and solved for the optimal pump schedules. Minimization of electrical cost was considered as the objective, while satisfying system constraints. Instead of using a penalty function approach for constraint violations, constraint violations were ordered according to their importance and solutions were ranked based on this order. The proposed approach was tested on a small test network and on a large real-world network. Results are compared with those obtained using a simple genetic algorithm based on binary representation and a hybrid genetic algorithm that uses level-based triggers.
[840]
Manuel López-Ibáñez, T. Devi Prasad, and Ben Paechter. Representations and Evolutionary Operators for the Scheduling of Pump Operations in Water Distribution Networks. Evolutionary Computation, 19(3):429–467, 2011.
bib | DOI ]
Reducing the energy consumption of water distribution networks has never had more significance. The greatest energy savings can be obtained by carefully scheduling the operations of pumps. Schedules can be defined either implicitly, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank levels, or explicitly by specifying the time during which each pump is on/off. The traditional representation of explicit schedules is a string of binary values with each bit representing pump on/off status during a particular time interval. In this paper, we formally define and analyze two new explicit representations based on time-controlled triggers, where the maximum number of pump switches is established beforehand and the schedule may contain less switches than the maximum. In these representations, a pump schedule is divided into a series of integers with each integer representing the number of hours for which a pump is active/inactive. This reduces the number of potential schedules compared to the binary representation, and allows the algorithm to operate on the feasible region of the search space. We propose evolutionary operators for these two new representations. The new representations and their corresponding operations are compared with the two most-used representations in pump scheduling, namely, binary representation and level-controlled triggers. A detailed statistical analysis of the results indicates which parameters have the greatest effect on the performance of evolutionary algorithms. The empirical results show that an evolutionary algorithm using the proposed representations improves over the results obtained by a recent state-of-the-art Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for pump scheduling using level-controlled triggers.
[841]
Manuel López-Ibáñez and Thomas Stützle. An experimental analysis of design choices of multi-objective ant colony optimization algorithms. Swarm Intelligence, 6(3):207–232, 2012.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
[842]
Manuel López-Ibáñez and Thomas Stützle. The Automatic Design of Multi-Objective Ant Colony Optimization Algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 16(6):861–875, 2012.
bib | DOI ]
Multi-objective optimization problems are problems with several, typically conflicting criteria for evaluating solutions. Without any a priori preference information, the Pareto optimality principle establishes a partial order among solutions, and the output of the algorithm becomes a set of nondominated solutions rather than a single one. Various ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms have been proposed in recent years for solving such problems. These multi-objective ACO (MOACO) algorithms exhibit different design choices for dealing with the particularities of the multi-objective context. This paper proposes a formulation of algorithmic components that suffices to describe most MOACO algorithms proposed so far. This formulation also shows that existing MOACO algorithms often share equivalent design choices but they are described in different terms. Moreover, this formulation is synthesized into a flexible algorithmic framework, from which not only existing MOACO algorithms may be instantiated, but also combinations of components that were never studied in the literature. In this sense, this paper goes beyond proposing a new MOACO algorithm, but it rather introduces a family of MOACO algorithms. The flexibility of the proposed MOACO framework facilitates the application of automatic algorithm configuration techniques. The experimental results presented in this paper show that the automatically configured MOACO framework outperforms the MOACO algorithms that inspired the framework itself. This paper is also among the first to apply automatic algorithm configuration techniques to multi-objective algorithms.
[843]
Manuel López-Ibáñez and Thomas Stützle. Automatically Improving the Anytime Behaviour of Optimisation Algorithms. European Journal of Operational Research, 235(3):569–582, 2014.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
Optimisation algorithms with good anytime behaviour try to return as high-quality solutions as possible independently of the computation time allowed. Designing algorithms with good anytime behaviour is a difficult task, because performance is often evaluated subjectively, by plotting the trade-off curve between computation time and solution quality. Yet, the trade-off curve may be modelled also as a set of mutually nondominated, bi-objective points. Using this model, we propose to combine an automatic configuration tool and the hypervolume measure, which assigns a single quality measure to a nondominated set. This allows us to improve the anytime behaviour of optimisation algorithms by means of automatically finding algorithmic configurations that produce the best nondominated sets. Moreover, the recently proposed weighted hypervolume measure is used here to incorporate the decision-maker's preferences into the automatic tuning procedure. We report on the improvements reached when applying the proposed method to two relevant scenarios: (i) the design of parameter variation strategies for MAX-MIN Ant System and (ii) the tuning of the anytime behaviour of SCIP, an open-source mixed integer programming solver with more than 200 parameters.
[844]
Eunice López-Camacho, Hugo Terashima-Marin, Peter Ross, and Gabriela Ochoa. A unified hyper-heuristic framework for solving bin packing problems. Expert Systems with Applications, 41(15):6876–6889, 2014.
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[845]
Samir Loudni and Patrice Boizumault. Combining VNS with constraint programming for solving anytime optimization problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 191:705–735, 2008.
bib | DOI ]
[846]
Helena R. Lourenço. Job-Shop Scheduling: Computational Study of Local Search and Large-Step Optimization Methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 83(2):347–364, 1995.
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[847]
Antonio Lova and Pilar Tormos. Analysis of Scheduling Schemes and Heuristic Rules Performance in Resource-Constrained Multiproject Scheduling. Annals of Operations Research, 102(1-4):263–286, February 2001.
bib | DOI ]
Frequently, the availability of resources assigned to a project is limited and not sufficient to execute all the concurrent activities. In this situation, decision making about their schedule is necessary. Many times this schedule supposes an increase in the project completion time. Additionally, companies commonly manage various projects simultaneously, sharing a pool of renewable resources. Given these resource constraints, we often can only apply heuristic methods to solve the scheduling problem. In this work the effect of the schedule generation schemes - serial or parallel - and priority rules - MINLFT, MINSLK, MAXTWK, SASP or FCFS - with two approaches - multi-project and single-project - are analysed. The time criteria considered are the mean project delay and the multiproject duration increase. Through an extensive computational study, results show that with the parallel scheduling generation scheme and the multi-project approach the project manager can obtain a good multiproject schedule with the time criterion selected: minimising mean project delay or minimising multiproject duration increase. New heuristics - based on priority rules with a two-phase approach - that outperform classical ones are proposed to minimise mean project delay with a multi-project approach. Finally, the best heuristics analysed are evaluated together with a representative sample of commercial project management software.
Keywords: Combinatorics, heuristic based on priority rules, Multiproject scheduling, Operation Research/Decision Theory, Project management, project management software, Resource allocation, Theory of Computation
[848]
Antonio Lova, Pilar Tormos, Mariamar Cervantes, and Federico Barber. An efficient hybrid genetic algorithm for scheduling projects with resource constraints and multiple execution modes. International Journal of Production Economics, 117(2):302–316, 2009.
bib | DOI ]
Multi-mode Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (MRCPSP) aims at finding the start times and execution modes for the activities of a project that optimize a given objective function while verifying a set of precedence and resource constraints. In this paper, we focus on this problem and develop a hybrid Genetic Algorithm (MM-HGA) to solve it. Its main contributions are the mode assignment procedure, the fitness function and the use of a very efficient improving method. Its performance is demonstrated by extensive computational results obtained on a set of standard instances and against the best currently available algorithms.
Keywords: genetic algorithm, multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling
[849]
Manuel Lozano, Fred Glover, Carlos García-Martínez, Francisco J. Rodríguez, and Rafael Martí. Tabu Search with Strategic Oscillation for the Quadratic Minimum Spanning Tree. IIE Transactions, 46(4):414–428, 2014.
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[853]
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Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem. Two-phase Pareto local search for the biobjective traveling salesman problem. Journal of Heuristics, 16(3):475–510, 2010.
bib | DOI ]
In this work, we present a method, called Two-Phase Pareto Local Search, to find a good approximation of the efficient set of the biobjective traveling salesman problem. In the first phase of the method, an initial population composed of a good approximation of the extreme supported efficient solutions is generated. We use as second phase a Pareto Local Search method applied to each solution of the initial population. We show that using the combination of these two techniques: good initial population generation plus Pareto Local Search gives better results than state-of-the-art algorithms. Two other points are introduced: the notion of ideal set and a simple way to produce near-efficient solutions of multiobjective problems, by using an efficient single-objective solver with a data perturbation technique.
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Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem. The multiobjective multidimensional knapsack problem: a survey and a new approach. Arxiv preprint arXiv:1007.4063, 2010. Published as [856].
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[856]
Thibaut Lust and Jacques Teghem. The multiobjective multidimensional knapsack problem: a survey and a new approach. International Transactions in Operational Research, 19(4):495–520, 2012.
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[857]
Thibaut Lust and Andrzej Jaszkiewicz. Speed-up techniques for solving large-scale biobjective TSP. Computers & Operations Research, 37(3):521–533, 2010.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: Multiobjective combinatorial optimization, Hybrid metaheuristics, TSP, Local search, Speed-up techniques
[858]
C. von Lücken, Benjamín Barán, and Carlos Brizuela. A survey on multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for many-objective problems. Computational Optimization and Applications, 58(3):707–756, 2014.
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Laurens van der Maaten and Geoffrey Hinton. Visualizing Data using t-SNE. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 9(86):2579–2605, 2008.
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Marlos C. Machado, Marc G. Bellemare, Erik Talvitie, Joel Veness, Matthew Hausknecht, and Michael Bowling. Revisiting the Arcade Learning Environment: Evaluation Protocols and Open Problems for General Agents. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 61(1):523–562, January 2018.
bib ]
The Arcade Learning Environment (ALE) is an evaluation platform that poses the challenge of building AI agents with general competency across dozens of Atari 2600 games. It supports a variety of different problem settings and it has been receiving increasing attention from the scientific community, leading to some high-pro_le success stories such as the much publicized Deep Q-Networks (DQN). In this article we take a big picture look at how the ALE is being used by the research community. We show how diverse the evaluation methodologies in the ALE have become with time, and highlight some key concerns when evaluating agents in the ALE. We use this discussion to present some methodological best practices and provide new benchmark results using these best practices. To further the progress in the field, we introduce a new version of the ALE that supports multiple game modes and provides a form of stochasticity we call sticky actions. We conclude this big picture look by revisiting challenges posed when the ALE was introduced, summarizing the state-of-the-art in various problems and highlighting problems that remain open.
[861]
Sam Madden. From Databases to Big Data. IEEE Internet Computing, 16(3), 2012.
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M. Mahdavi, M. Fesanghary, and E. Damangir. An improved harmony search algorithm for solving optimization problems. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 188(2):1567–1579, 2007.
bib | DOI ]
This paper develops an Improved harmony search (IHS) algorithm for solving optimization problems. IHS employs a novel method for generating new solution vectors that enhances accuracy and convergence rate of harmony search (HS) algorithm. In this paper the impacts of constant parameters on harmony search algorithm are discussed and a strategy for tuning these parameters is presented. The IHS algorithm has been successfully applied to various benchmarking and standard engineering optimization problems. Numerical results reveal that the proposed algorithm can find better solutions when compared to HS and other heuristic or deterministic methods and is a powerful search algorithm for various engineering optimization problems.
Keywords: Global optimization, Heuristics, Harmony search algorithm, Mathematical programming
[863]
Guilherme B. Mainieri and Débora P. Ronconi. New heuristics for total tardiness minimization in a flexible flowshop. Optimization Letters, pp.  1–20, 2012.
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Discusses a priori (scalarized) methods.
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This paper introduces a new solution method based on Goal Programming for Multiple Objective Decision Making (MODM) problems. The method, called Interactive Sequential Goal Programming (ISGP), combines and extends the attractive features of both Goal Programming and interactive solution approaches for MODM problems. ISGP is applicable to both linear and non-linear problems. It uses existing single objective optimization techniques and, hence, available computer codes utilizing these techniques can be adapted for use in ISGP. The non-dominance of the "best-compromise" solution is assured. The information required from the decision maker in each iteration is simple. The proposed method is illustrated by solving a nutrition problem.
[885]
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[886]
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Atanu Mazumdar, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Tinkle Chugh, and Kaisa Miettinen. Treed Gaussian Process Regression for Solving Offline Data-Driven Continuous Multiobjective Optimization Problems. Evolutionary Computation, 2023.
bib | DOI ]
For offline data-driven multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs), no new data is available during the optimization process. Approximation models (or surrogates) are first built using the provided offline data and an optimizer, e.g. a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm, can then be utilized to find Pareto optimal solutions to the problem with surrogates as objective functions. In contrast to online data-driven MOPs, these surrogates cannot be updated with new data and, hence, the approximation accuracy cannot be improved by considering new data during the optimization process. Gaussian process regression (GPR) models are widely used as surrogates because of their ability to provide uncertainty information. However, building GPRs becomes computationally expensive when the size of the dataset is large. Using sparse GPRs reduces the computational cost of building the surrogates. However, sparse GPRs are not tailored to solve offline data-driven MOPs, where good accuracy of the surrogates is needed near Pareto optimal solutions. Treed GPR (TGPR-MO) surrogates for offline data-driven MOPs with continuous decision variables are proposed in this paper. The proposed surrogates first split the decision space into subregions using regression trees and build GPRs sequentially in regions close to Pareto optimal solutions in the decision space to accurately approximate tradeoffs between the objective functions. TGPR-MO surrogates are computationally inexpensive because GPRs are built only in a smaller region of the decision space utilizing a subset of the data. The TGPR-MO surrogates were tested on distance-based visualizable problems with various data sizes, sampling strategies, numbers of objective functions, and decision variables. Experimental results showed that the TGPR-MO surrogates are computationally cheaper and can handle datasets of large size. Furthermore, TGPR-MO surrogates produced solutions closer to Pareto optimal solutions compared to full GPRs and sparse GPRs.
Keywords: Gaussian processes, Kriging, Regression trees, Metamodelling, Surrogate, Pareto optimality
[890]
Ross M. McConnell, Kurt Mehlhorn, Stefan Näher, and Pascal Schweitzer. Certifying algorithms. Computer Science Review, 5(2):119–161, 2011.
bib | DOI ]
A certifying algorithm is an algorithm that produces, with each output, a certificate or witness (easy-to-verify proof) that the particular output has not been compromised by a bug. A user of a certifying algorithm inputs x, receives the output y and the certificate w, and then checks, either manually or by use of a program, that w proves that y is a correct output for input x. In this way, he/she can be sure of the correctness of the output without having to trust the algorithm. We put forward the thesis that certifying algorithms are much superior to non-certifying algorithms, and that for complex algorithmic tasks, only certifying algorithms are satisfactory. Acceptance of this thesis would lead to a change of how algorithms are taught and how algorithms are researched. The widespread use of certifying algorithms would greatly enhance the reliability of algorithmic software. We survey the state of the art in certifying algorithms and add to it. In particular, we start a theory of certifying algorithms and prove that the concept is universal.
Keywords: Algorithms, Software reliability, Certification
[891]
G. McCormick and R. S. Powell. Optimal Pump Scheduling in Water Supply Systems with Maximum Demand Charges. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, 129(5):372–379, 2003.
bib | DOI | epub ]
Keywords: water supply; pumps; Markov processes; cost optimal control
[892]
G. McCormick and R. S. Powell. Derivation of near-optimal pump schedules for water distribution by simulated annealing. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 55(7):728–736, July 2004.
bib | DOI ]
The scheduling of pumps for clean water distribution is a partially discrete non-linear problem with many variables. The scheduling method described in this paper typically produces costs within 1% of a linear program-based solution, and can incorporate realistic non-linear costs that may be hard to incorporate in linear programming formulations. These costs include pump switching and maximum demand charges. A simplified model is derived from a standard hydraulic simulator. An initial schedule is produced by a descent method. Two-stage simulated annealing then produces solutions in a few minutes. Iterative recalibration ensures that the solution agrees closely with the results from a full hydraulic simulation.
[893]
James McDermott. When and Why Metaheuristics Researchers can Ignore "No Free Lunch" Theorems. SN Computer Science, 1(60):1–18, 2020.
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Although experimental studies have been widely applied to the investigation of algorithm performance, very little attention has been given to experimental method in this area. This is unfortunate, since much can be done to improve the quality of the data obtained; often, much improvement may be needed for the data to be useful. This paper gives a tutorial discussion of two aspects of good experimental technique: the use of variance reduction techniques and simulation speedups in algorithm studies. In an illustrative study, application of variance reduction techniques produces a decrease in variance by a factor 1000 in one case, giving a dramatic improvement in the precision of experimental results. Furthermore, the complexity of the simulation program is improved from Θ(m n/Hn) to Θ(m + n log n) (where m is typically much larger than n), giving a much faster simulation program and therefore more data per unit of computation time. The general application of variance reduction techniques is also discussed for a variety of algorithm problem domains.
Keywords: experimental analysis of algorithms, move-to-front rule, self-organizing sequential search, statistical analysis of algorithms, transpose rule, variance reduction techniques
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Two types of sampling plans are examined as alternatives to simple random sampling in Monte Carlo studies. These plans are shown to be improvements over simple random sampling with respect to variance for a class of estimators which includes the sample mean and the empirical distribution function.
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Proposed g-NSGA-II
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Marco A. Montes de Oca, Doǧan Aydın, and Thomas Stützle. An Incremental Particle Swarm for Large-Scale Continuous Optimization Problems: An Example of Tuning-in-the-loop (Re)Design of Optimization Algorithms. Soft Computing, 15(11):2233–2255, 2011.
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Sara Morin, Caroline Gagné, and Marc Gravel. Ant colony optimization with a specialized pheromone trail for the car-sequencing problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 197(3):1185–1191, 2009.
bib | DOI ]
This paper studies the learning process in an ant colony optimization algorithm designed to solve the problem of ordering cars on an assembly line (car-sequencing problem). This problem has been shown to be NP-hard and evokes a great deal of interest among practitioners. Learning in an ant algorithm is achieved by using an artificial pheromone trail, which is a central element of this metaheuristic. Many versions of the algorithm are found in literature, the main distinction among them being the management of the pheromone trail. Nevertheless, few of them seek to perfect learning by modifying the internal structure of the trail. In this paper, a new pheromone trail structure is proposed that is specifically adapted to the type of constraints in the car-sequencing problem. The quality of the results obtained when solving three sets of benchmark problems is superior to that of the best solutions found in literature and shows the efficiency of the specialized trail.
Keywords: Ant colony optimization,Car-sequencing problem,Pheromone trail,Scheduling
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Keywords: Bayesian prediction
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The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate a number of multiobjective programming concepts relative to reflection of utility, assurance of nondominated solutions and practicality for larger problems using conventional software. In the problem used, the nonlinear simulated DM utility function applied resulted in a nonextreme point solution. Very often, the preferred solution could end up being an extreme point solution, in which case the techniques relying upon LP concepts would work as well if not better than utilizing constrained objective attainments. The point is that there is no reason to expect linear or near linear utility.
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This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP). To construct a powerful GA, we use edge assembly crossover (EAX) and make substantial enhancements to it: (i) localization of EAX together with its efficient implementation and (ii) the use of a local search procedure in EAX to determine good combinations of building blocks of parent solutions for generating even better offspring solutions from very high-quality parent solutions. In addition, we develop (iii) an innovative selection model for maintaining population diversity at a negligible computational cost. Experimental results on well-studied TSP benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed GA outperforms state-of-the-art heuristic algorithms in finding very high-quality solutions on instances with up to 200,000 cities. In contrast to the state-of-the-art TSP heuristics, which are all based on the Lin-Kernighan (LK) algorithm, our GA achieves top performance without using an LK-based algorithm.
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Antonio J. Nebro, Manuel López-Ibáñez, José García-Nieto, and Carlos A. Coello Coello. On the automatic design of multi-objective particle swarm optimizers: experimentation and analysis. Swarm Intelligence, 2023.
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Research in multi-objective particle swarm optimizers (MOPSOs) progresses by proposing one new MOPSO at a time. In spite of the commonalities among different MOPSOs, it is often unclear which algorithmic components are crucial for explaining the performance of a particular MOPSO design. Moreover, it is expected that different designs may perform best on different problem families and identifying a best overall MOPSO is a challenging task. We tackle this challenge here by: (1) proposing AutoMOPSO, a flexible algorithmic template for designing MOPSOs with a design space that can instantiate thousands of potential MOPSOs; and (2) searching for good-performing MOPSO designs given a family of training problems by means of an automatic configuration tool (irace). We apply this automatic design methodology to generate a MOPSO that significantly outperforms two state-of-the-art MOPSOs on four well-known bi-objective problem families. We also identify the key design choices and parameters of the winning MOPSO by means of ablation. AutoMOPSO is publicly available as part of the jMetal framework.
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Computer science is the study of the phenomena surrounding computers. The founders of this society understood this very well when they called themselves the Association for Computing Machinery. The machine-not just the hardware, but the programmed, living machine-is the organism we study.
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Progress in science relies in part on generating hypotheses with existing observations and testing hypotheses with new observations. This distinction between postdiction and prediction is appreciated conceptually but is not respected in practice. Mistaking generation of postdictions with testing of predictions reduces the credibility of research findings. However, ordinary biases in human reasoning, such as hindsight bias, make it hard to avoid this mistake. An effective solution is to define the research questions and analysis plan before observing the research outcomes–a process called preregistration. Preregistration distinguishes analyses and outcomes that result from predictions from those that result from postdictions. A variety of practical strategies are available to make the best possible use of preregistration in circumstances that fall short of the ideal application, such as when the data are preexisting. Services are now available for preregistration across all disciplines, facilitating a rapid increase in the practice. Widespread adoption of preregistration will increase distinctiveness between hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing and will improve the credibility of research findings.
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Multiple objective programming provides a means of aiding decision makers facing complex decisions where trade-offs among conflicting objectives must be reconciled. Interactive multiobjective programming provides a means for decision makers to learn what these trade-offs involve, while the mathematical program generates solutions that seek improvement of the implied utility of the decision maker. A variety of multiobjective programming techniques have been presented in the multicriteria decision-making literature. This study reviews published studies with human subjects where some of these techniques were applied. While all of the techniques have the ability to support decision makers under conditions of multiple objectives, a number of features in applying these systems have been tested by these studies. A general evolution of techniques is traced, starting with methods relying upon linear combinations of value, to more recent methods capable of reflecting nonlinear trade-offs of value. Support of nonlinear utility and enhancing decision-maker learning are considered.
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Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Design of Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms for Permutation Flowshop Problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 276:409–421, 2019.
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Stochastic local search methods are at the core of many effective heuristics for tackling different permutation flowshop problems (PFSPs). Usually, such algorithms require a careful, manual algorithm engineering effort to reach high performance. An alternative to the manual algorithm engineering is the automated design of effective SLS algorithms through building flexible algorithm frameworks and using automatic algorithm configuration techniques to instantiate high-performing algorithms. In this paper, we automatically generate new high-performing algorithms for some of the most widely studied variants of the PFSP. More in detail, we (i) developed a new algorithm framework, EMILI, that implements algorithm-specific and problem-specific building blocks; (ii) define the rules of how to compose algorithms from the building blocks; and (iii) employ an automatic algorithm configuration tool to search for high performing algorithm configurations. With these ingredients, we automatically generate algorithms for the PFSP with the objectives makespan, total completion time and total tardiness, which outperform the best algorithms obtained by a manual algorithm engineering process.
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Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle. Evaluating the impact of grammar complexity in automatic algorithm design. International Transactions in Operational Research, pp.  1–26, 2020.
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Federico Pagnozzi and Thomas Stützle. Automatic design of hybrid stochastic local search algorithms for permutation flowshop problems with additional constraints. Operations Research Perspectives, 8:100180, 2021.
bib | DOI ]
Automatic design of stochastic local search algorithms has been shown to be very effective in generating algorithms for the permutation flowshop problem for the most studied objectives including makespan, flowtime and total tardiness. The automatic design system uses a configuration tool to combine algorithmic components following a set of rules defined as a context-free grammar. In this paper we use the same system to tackle two of the most studied additional constraints for these objectives: sequence dependent setup times and no-idle constraint. Additional components have been added to adapt the system to the new problems while keeping intact the grammar structure and the experimental setup. The experiments show that the generated algorithms outperform the state of the art in each case.
[1011]
Alberto Pajares, Xavier Blasco, Juan Manuel Herrero, and Miguel A. Martínez. A Comparison of Archiving Strategies for Characterization of Nearly Optimal Solutions under Multi-Objective Optimization. Mathematics, 9(9):999, 2021.
bib | DOI ]
In a multi-objective optimization problem, in addition to optimal solutions, multimodal and/or nearly optimal alternatives can also provide additional useful information for the decision maker. However, obtaining all nearly optimal solutions entails an excessive number of alternatives. Therefore, to consider the nearly optimal solutions, it is convenient to obtain a reduced set, putting the focus on the potentially useful alternatives. These solutions are the alternatives that are close to the optimal solutions in objective space, but which differ significantly in the decision space. To characterize this set, it is essential to simultaneously analyze the decision and objective spaces. One of the crucial points in an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm is the archiving strategy. This is in charge of keeping the solution set, called the archive, updated during the optimization process. The motivation of this work is to analyze the three existing archiving strategies proposed in the literature (ArchiveUpdatePQ,εDxy, Archive_nevMOGA, and targetSelect) that aim to characterize the potentially useful solutions. The archivers are evaluated on two benchmarks and in a real engineering example. The contribution clearly shows the main differences between the three archivers. This analysis is useful for the design of evolutionary algorithms that consider nearly optimal solutions.
Keywords: multi-objective optimization; nearly optimal solutions; non-epsilon dominance; multimodality; decision space diversity; archiving strategy; evolutionary algorithm; non-linear parametric identification
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Daniel Palhazi Cuervo, Peter Goos, Kenneth Sörensen, and Emely Arráiz. An Iterated Local Search Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhauls. European Journal of Operational Research, 237(2):454–464, 2014.
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Quan-Ke Pan and Rubén Ruiz. A Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Permutation Flowshop Heuristics to Minimize Flowtime. Computers & Operations Research, 40(1):117–128, 2013.
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Quan-Ke Pan, Rubén Ruiz, and Pedro Alfaro-Fernández. Iterated Search Methods for Earliness and Tardiness Minimization in Hybrid Flowshops with Due Windows. Computers & Operations Research, 80:50–60, 2017.
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Quan-Ke Pan, Mehmet Fatih Tasgetiren, and Yun-Chia Liang. A Discrete Differential Evolution Algorithm for the Permutation Flowshop Scheduling Problem. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 55(4):795 – 816, 2008.
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Quan-Ke Pan, Ling Wang, and Bao-Hua Zhao. An improved iterated greedy algorithm for the no-wait flow shop scheduling problem with makespan criterion. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 38(7-8):778–786, 2008.
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Sinno Jialin Pan and Qiang Yang. A survey on transfer learning. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 22(10):1345–1359, 2009.
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Luís Paquete, Tommaso Schiavinotto, and Thomas Stützle. On Local Optima in Multiobjective Combinatorial Optimization Problems. Annals of Operations Research, 156:83–97, 2007.
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In this article, local optimality in multiobjective combinatorial optimization is used as a baseline for the design and analysis of two iterative improvement algorithms. Both algorithms search in a neighborhood that is defined on a collection of sets of feasible solutions and their acceptance criterion is based on outperformance relations. Proofs of the soundness and completeness of these algorithms are given.
Keywords: Pareto local search, PLS
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Luís Paquete and Thomas Stützle. A study of stochastic local search algorithms for the biobjective QAP with correlated flow matrices. European Journal of Operational Research, 169(3):943–959, 2006.
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Paola Pellegrini, L. Castelli, and R. Pesenti. Metaheuristic algorithms for the simultaneous slot allocation problem. IET Intelligent Transport Systems, 6(4):453–462, December 2012.
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Paola Pellegrini, Franco Mascia, Thomas Stützle, and Mauro Birattari. On the Sensitivity of Reactive Tabu Search to its Meta-parameters. Soft Computing, 18(11):2177–2190, 2014.
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Puca Huachi Vaz Penna, Anand Subramanian, and Luiz Satoru Ochi. An Iterated Local Search Heuristic for the Heterogeneous Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem. Journal of Heuristics, 19(2):201–232, 2013.
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Jeffrey M. Perkel. Challenge to scientists: does your ten-year-old code still run? Nature, 584:556–658, 2020.
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Keywords: reproducibility; software engineering; ReScience C; Ten Years Reproducibility Challenge; code reusability
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Keywords: Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms,Pollution,Simulation,Traffic flow
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Rapeepan Pitakaso, Christian Almeder, Karl F. Doerner, and Richard F. Hartl. A Max-Min Ant System for unconstrained multi-level lot-sizing problems. Computers & Operations Research, 34(9):2533–2552, 2007.
bib | DOI ]
In this paper, we present an ant-based algorithm for solving unconstrained multi-level lot-sizing problems called ant system for multi-level lot-sizing algorithm (ASMLLS). We apply a hybrid approach where we use ant colony optimization in order to find a good lot-sizing sequence, i.e. a sequence of the different items in the product structure in which we apply a modified Wagner-Whitin algorithm for each item separately. Based on the setup costs each ant generates a sequence of items. Afterwards a simple single-stage lot-sizing rule is applied with modified setup costs. This modification of the setup costs depends on the position of the item in the lot-sizing sequence, on the items which have been lot-sized before, and on two further parameters, which are tried to be improved by a systematic search. For small-sized problems ASMLLS is among the best algorithms, but for most medium- and large-sized problems it outperforms all other approaches regarding solution quality as well as computational time.
Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Material requirements planning, Multi-level lot-sizing, Wagner-Whitin algorithm
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Daniel Porumbel, Gilles Goncalves, Hamid Allaoui, and Tienté Hsu. Iterated Local Search and Column Generation to solve Arc-Routing as a Permutation Set-Covering Problem. European Journal of Operational Research, 256(2):349–367, 2017.
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Kenneth V. Price, Abhishek Kumar, and Ponnuthurai N. Suganthan. Trial-based dominance for comparing both the speed and accuracy of stochastic optimizers with standard non-parametric tests. Swarm and Evolutionary Computation, 78:101287, 2023.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: Benchmarking, Two-variable non-parametric tests, Evolutionary algorithms, Dominance, Stochastic optimization, Numerical optimization, Mann-Whitney test
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Juan-Manuel Ramos-Pérez, Gara Miranda, Eduardo Segredo, Coromoto León, and Casiano Rodríguez-León. Application of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning Healthy and Balanced School Lunches. Mathematics, 9(1):80, December 2021.
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A multi-objective formulation of the Menu Planning Problem, which is termed the Multi-objective Menu Planning Problem, is presented herein. Menu planning is of great interest in the health field due to the importance of proper nutrition in today's society, and particularly, in school canteens. In addition to considering the cost of the meal plan as the classic objective to be minimized, we also introduce a second objective aimed at minimizing the degree of repetition of courses and food groups that a particular meal plan consists of. The motivation behind this particular multi-objective formulation is to offer a meal plan that is not only affordable but also varied and balanced from a nutritional standpoint. The plan is designed for a given number of days and ensures that the specific nutritional requirements of school-age children are satisfied. The main goal of the current work is to demonstrate the multi-objective nature of the said formulation, through a comprehensive experimental assessment carried out over a set of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms applied to different instances. At the same time, we are also interested in validating the multi-objective formulation by performing quantitative and qualitative analyses of the solutions attained when solving it. Computational results show the multi-objective nature of the said formulation, as well as that it allows suitable meal plans to be obtained.
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Keywords: irace, SMAC, GGA, REVAC, VRP
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Marc Reimann and Marco Laumanns. Savings based ant colony optimization for the capacitated minimum spanning tree problem. Computers & Operations Research, 33(6):1794–1822, 2006.
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The problem of connecting a set of client nodes with known demands to a root node through a minimum cost tree network, subject to capacity constraints on all links is known as the capacitated minimum spanning tree (CMST) problem. As the problem is NP-hard, we propose a hybrid ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to tackle it heuristically. The algorithm exploits two important problem characteristics: (i) the CMST problem is closely related to the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP), and (ii) given a clustering of client nodes that satisfies capacity constraints, the solution is to find a MST for each cluster, which can be done exactly in polynomial time. Our ACO exploits these two characteristics of the CMST by a solution construction originally developed for the CVRP. Given the CVRP solution, we then apply an implementation of Prim's algorithm to each cluster to obtain a feasible CMST solution. Results from a comprehensive computational study indicate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Ant colony Optimization, Capacitated minimum spanning tree problem
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Keywords: anchoring bias, best-worst method, cognitive bias, MADM, multi-attribute weighting, SMART, Swing
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The problem of selecting an effective algorithm arises in a wide variety of situations. This chapter starts with a discussion on abstract models: the basic model and associated problems, the model with selection based on features, and the model with variable performance criteria. One objective of this chapter is to explore the applicability of the approximation theory to the algorithm selection problem. There is an intimate relationship here and that the approximation theory forms an appropriate base upon which to develop a theory of algorithm selection methods. The approximation theory currently lacks much of the necessary machinery for the algorithm selection problem. There is a need to develop new results and apply known techniques to these new circumstances. The final pages of this chapter form a sort of appendix, which lists 15 specific open problems and questions in this area. There is a close relationship between the algorithm selection problem and the general optimization theory. This is not surprising since the approximation problem is a special form of the optimization problem. Most realistic algorithm selection problems are of moderate to high dimensionality and thus one should expect them to be quite complex. One consequence of this is that most straightforward approaches (even well-conceived ones) are likely to lead to enormous computations for the best selection. The single most important part of the solution of a selection problem is the appropriate choice of the form for selection mapping. It is here that theories give the least guidance and that the art of problem solving is most crucial.
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bib | DOI ]
This study presents a novel evidential reasoning (ER) prediction model called MAKER-RIMER to examine how different features embedded in Twitter posts (tweets) can predict the number of retweets achieved during an electoral campaign. The tweets posted by the two most voted candidates during the official campaign for the 2017 Ecuadorian Presidential election were used for this research. For each tweet, five features including type of tweet, emotion, URL, hashtag, and date are identified and coded to predict if tweets are of either high or low impact. The main contributions of the new proposed model include its suitability to analyse tweet datasets based on likelihood analysis of data. The model is interpretable, and the prediction process relies only on the use of available data. The experimental results show that MAKER-RIMER performed better, in terms of misclassification error, when compared against other predictive machine learning approaches. In addition, the model allows observing which features of the candidates' tweets are linked to high and low impact. Tweets containing allusions to the contender candidate, either with positive or negative connotations, without hashtags, and written towards the end of the campaign, were persistently those with the highest impact. URLs, on the other hand, is the only variable that performs differently for the two candidates in terms of achieving high impact. MAKER-RIMER can provide campaigners of political parties or candidates with a tool to measure how features of tweets are predictors of their impact, which can be useful to tailor Twitter content during electoral campaigns.
Keywords: Evidential reasoning rule,Belief rule-based inference,Maximum likelihood data analysis,Twitter,Retweet,Prediction
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When solving multiobjective optimization problems, preference-based evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) algorithms introduce preference information into an evolutionary algorithm in order to focus the search for objective vectors towards the region of interest of the Pareto optimal front. In this paper, we suggest a preference-based EMO algorithm called weighting achievement scalarizing function genetic algorithm (WASF-GA), which considers the preferences of the decision maker (DM) expressed by means of a reference point. The main purpose of WASF-GA is to approximate the region of interest of the Pareto optimal front determined by the reference point, which contains the Pareto optimal objective vectors that obey the preferences expressed by the DM in the best possible way. The proposed approach is based on the use of an achievement scalarizing function (ASF) and on the classification of the individuals into several fronts. At each generation of WASF-GA, this classification is done according to the values that each solution takes on the ASF for the reference point and using different weight vectors. These vectors of weights are selected so that the vectors formed by their inverse components constitute a well-distributed representation of the weight vectors space. The efficiency and usefulness of WASF-GA is shown in several test problems in comparison to other preference-based EMO algorithms. Regarding a metric based on the hypervolume, we can say that WASF-GA has outperformed the other algorithms considered in most of the problems.
Proposed WASF-GA
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Keywords: Safe optimization; CMA-ES, Gaussian processes; Least-Squares Support Vector Machine
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[1133]
Martin W. P. Savelsbergh. Local search in routing problems with time windows. Annals of Operations Research, 4(1):285–305, December 1985.
bib | DOI ]
We develop local search algorithms for routing problems with time windows. The presented algorithms are based on thek-interchange concept. The presence of time windows introduces feasibility constraints, the checking of which normally requires O(N) time. Our method reduces this checking effort to O(1) time. We also consider the problem of finding initial solutions. A complexity result is given and an insertion heuristic is described.
[1134]
Dhish Kumar Saxena, João A. Duro, Anish Tiwari, Kalyanmoy Deb, and Qingfu Zhang. Objective Reduction in Many-Objective Optimization: Linear and Nonlinear Algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 17(1):77–99, 2013.
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Michael Schilde, Karl F. Doerner, Richard F. Hartl, and Guenter Kiechle. Metaheuristics for the bi-objective orienteering problem. Swarm Intelligence, 3(3):179–201, 2009.
bib | DOI ]
In this paper, heuristic solution techniques for the multi-objective orienteering problem are developed. The motivation stems from the problem of planning individual tourist routes in a city. Each point of interest in a city provides different benefits for different categories (e.g., culture, shopping). Each tourist has different preferences for the different categories when selecting and visiting the points of interests (e.g., museums, churches). Hence, a multi-objective decision situation arises. To determine all the Pareto optimal solutions, two metaheuristic search techniques are developed and applied. We use the Pareto ant colony optimization algorithm and extend the design of the variable neighborhood search method to the multi-objective case. Both methods are hybridized with path relinking procedures. The performances of the two algorithms are tested on several benchmark instances as well as on real world instances from different Austrian regions and the cities of Vienna and Padua. The computational results show that both implemented methods are well performing algorithms to solve the multi-objective orienteering problem.
[1136]
Martin Schlüter, Jose A. Egea, and Julio R. Banga. Extended ant colony optimization for non-convex mixed integer nonlinear programming. Computers & Operations Research, 36(7):2217–2229, 2009.
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[1137]
Oliver Schütze, X. Esquivel, A. Lara, and Carlos A. Coello Coello. Using the Averaged Hausdorff Distance as a Performance Measure in Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 16(4):504–522, 2012.
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[1139]
Mark Schillinger, Benjamin Hartmann, Patric Skalecki, Mona Meister, Duy Nguyen-Tuong, and Oliver Nelles. Safe active learning and safe Bayesian optimization for tuning a PI-controller. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 50(1):5967–5972, 2017.
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[1140]
Julie R. Schames, Richard H. Henchman, Jay S. Siegel, Christoph A. Sotriffer, Haihong Ni, and J. Andrew McCammon. Discovery of a Novel Binding Trench in HIV Integrase. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 47(8):1879–1881, 2004.
bib | DOI ]
Evolutionary optimization of the first clinically approved anti-viral drug for HIV
[1141]
Oliver Schütze, Carlos Hernández, El-Ghazali Talbi, Jian-Qiao Sun, Yousef Naranjani, and F-R Xiong. Archivers for the representation of the set of approximate solutions for MOPs. Journal of Heuristics, 25:71–105, 2019.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: archiving, nearly optimality, epsilon-dominance, epsilon-approximation, hausdorff convergence
[1142]
Jeffrey C. Schank and Thomas J. Koehnle. Pseudoreplication is a pseudoproblem. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123(4):421–433, 2009.
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Oliver Schütze, A. Lara, and Carlos A. Coello Coello. On the Influence of the Number of Objectives on the Hardness of a Multiobjective Optimization Problem. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15(4):444–455, 2011.
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Oliver Schütze, Marco Laumanns, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Michael Dellnitz, and El-Ghazali Talbi. Convergence of stochastic search algorithms to finite size Pareto set approximations. Journal of Global Optimization, 41(4):559–577, 2008.
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Oliver Schütze, Marco Laumanns, Emilia Tantar, Carlos A. Coello Coello, and El-Ghazali Talbi. Computing gap free Pareto front approximations with stochastic search algorithms. Evolutionary Computation, 18(1):65–96, 2010.
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Marie Schmidt, Anita Schöbel, and Lisa Thom. Min-ordering and max-ordering scalarization methods for multi-objective robust optimization. European Journal of Operational Research, 275(2):446–459, 2019.
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Eric Schulz, Maarten Speekenbrink, and Andreas Krause. A tutorial on Gaussian process regression: Modelling, exploring, and exploiting functions. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 85:1–16, August 2018.
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[1150]
Tommaso Schiavinotto and Thomas Stützle. The Linear Ordering Problem: Instances, Search Space Analysis and Algorithms. Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 3(4):367–402, 2004.
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Oliver Schütze, Massimiliano Vasile, and Carlos A. Coello Coello. Computing the Set of Epsilon-Efficient Solutions in Multiobjective Space Mission Design. Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, and Communication, 8(3):53–70, 2011.
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[1155]
Elias Schede, Jasmin Brandt, Alexander Tornede, Marcel Wever, Viktor Bengs, Eyke Hüllermeier, and Kevin Tierney. A survey of methods for automated algorithm configuration. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 75:425–487, 2022.
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Seyed Mahdi Shavarani, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Richard Allmendinger. Detecting Hidden and Irrelevant Objectives in Interactive Multi-Objective Optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2023.
bib | DOI ]
Evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithms (EMOAs) typically assume that all objectives that are relevant to the decision-maker (DM) are optimized by the EMOA. In some scenarios, however, there are irrelevant objectives that are optimized by the EMOA but ignored by the DM, as well as, hidden objectives that the DM considers when judging the utility of solutions but are not optimized. This discrepancy between the EMOA and the DM's preferences may impede the search for the most-preferred solution and waste resources evaluating irrelevant objectives. Research on objective reduction has focused so far on the structure of the problem and correlations between objectives and neglected the role of the DM. We formally define here the concepts of irrelevant and hidden objectives and propose methods for detecting them, based on uni-variate feature selection and recursive feature elimination, that use the preferences already elicited when a DM interacts with a ranking-based interactive EMOA (iEMOA). We incorporate the detection methods into an iEMOA capable of dynamically switching the objectives being optimized. Our experiments show that this approach can efficiently identify which objectives are relevant to the DM and reduce the number of objectives being optimized, while keeping and often improving the utility, according to the DM, of the best solution found.
[1158]
Seyed Mahdi Shavarani, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Joshua D. Knowles. On Benchmarking Interactive Evolutionary Multi-Objective Algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 2023.
bib | DOI ]
We carry out a detailed performance assessment of two interactive evolutionary multi-objective algorithms (EMOAs) using a machine decision maker that enables us to repeat experiments and study specific behaviours modeled after human decision makers (DMs). Using the same set of benchmark test problems as in the original papers on these interactive EMOAs (in up to 10 objectives), we bring to light interesting effects when we use a machine DM based on sigmoidal utility functions that have support from the psychology literature (replacing the simpler utility functions used in the original papers). Our machine DM enables us to go further and simulate human biases and inconsistencies as well. Our results from this study, which is the most comprehensive assessment of multiple interactive EMOAs so far conducted, suggest that current well-known algorithms have shortcomings that need addressing. These results further demonstrate the value of improving the benchmarking of interactive EMOAs
[1159]
Babooshka Shavazipour, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Kaisa Miettinen. Visualizations for Decision Support in Scenario-based Multiobjective Optimization. Information Sciences, 578:1–21, 2021.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
We address challenges of decision problems when managers need to optimize several conflicting objectives simultaneously under uncertainty. We propose visualization tools to support the solution of such scenario-based multiobjective optimization problems. Suitable graphical visualizations are necessary to support managers in understanding, evaluating, and comparing the performances of management decisions according to all objectives in all plausible scenarios. To date, no appropriate visualization has been suggested. This paper fills this gap by proposing two visualization methods: a novel extension of empirical attainment functions for scenarios and an adapted version of heatmaps. They help a decision-maker in gaining insight into realizations of trade-offs and comparisons between objective functions in different scenarios. Some fundamental questions that a decision-maker may wish to answer with the help of visualizations are also identified. Several examples are utilized to illustrate how the proposed visualizations support a decision-maker in evaluating and comparing solutions to be able to make a robust decision by answering the questions. Finally, we validate the usefulness of the proposed visualizations in a real-world problem with a real decision-maker. We conclude with guidelines regarding which of the proposed visualizations are best suited for different problem classes.
[1160]
Weishi Shao, Dechang Pi, and Zhongshi Shao. Memetic algorithm with node and edge histogram for no-idle flow shop scheduling problem to minimize the makespan criterion. Applied Soft Computing, 54:164–182, 2017.
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Weishi Shao, Dechang Pi, and Zhongshi Shao. A hybrid discrete teaching-learning based meta-heuristic for solving no-idle flow shop scheduling problem with total tardiness criterion. Computers & Operations Research, 94:89–105, 2018.
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Ke Shang, Tianye Shu, Hisao Ishibuchi, Yang Nan, and Lie Meng Pang. Benchmarking large-scale subset selection in evolutionary multi-objective optimization. Information Sciences, 622:755–770, 2023.
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[1163]
Babooshka Shavazipour and T. J. Stewart. Multi-objective optimisation under deep uncertainty. Operational Research, September 2019.
bib | DOI ]
This paper presents a scenario-based Multi-Objective structure to handle decision problems under deep uncertainty. Most of the decisions in real-life problems need to be made in the absence of complete knowledge about the consequences of the decision and/or are characterised by uncertainties about the future which is unpredictable. These uncertainties are almost impossible to reduce by gathering more information and are not statistical in nature. Therefore, classical probability-based approaches, such as stochastic programming, do not address these problems; as they require a correctly-defined complete sample space, strong assumptions (e.g. normality), or both. The proposed method extends the concept of two-stage stochastic programming with recourse to address the capability of dealing with deep uncertainty through the use of scenario planning rather than statistical expectation. In this research, scenarios are used as a dimension of preference to avoid problems relating to the assessment and use of probabilities under deep uncertainty. Such scenario-based thinking involved a multi-objective representation of performance under different future conditions as an alternative to expectation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt of performing a multi-criteria evaluation under deep uncertainty through a structured optimisation model. The proposed structure replacing probabilities (in dynamic systems with deep uncertainties) by aspirations within a goal programming structure. In fact, this paper also proposes an extension of the goal programming paradigm to deal with deep uncertainty. Furthermore, we will explain how this structure can be modelled, implemented, and solved by Goal Programming using some simple, but not trivial, examples. Further discussion and comparisons with some popular existing methods will also provided to highlight the superiorities of the proposed structure.
[1164]
Babooshka Shavazipour, Jonas Stray, and T. J. Stewart. Sustainable planning in sugar-bioethanol supply chain under deep uncertainty: A case study of South African sugarcane industry. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 143:107091, 2020.
bib | DOI ]
In this paper, the strategic planning of sugar-bioethanol supply chains (SCs) under deep uncertainty has been addressed by applying a two-stage scenario-based multiobjective optimisation methodology. In practice, the depth of uncertainty is very high, potential outcomes are not precisely enumerable, and probabilities of outcomes are not properly definable. To date, no appropriate framework has been suggested for dealing with deep uncertainty in supply chain management and energy-related problems. This study is the first try to fills this gap. Particularly, the sustainability of the whole infrastructure of the sugar-bioethanol SCs is analysed in such a way that the final solutions are sustainable, robust and adaptable for a broad range of plausible futures. Three objectives are considered in this problem under six uncertain parameters. A case study of South African sugarcane industry is utilised to study and examine the proposed model. The results prove the economic profitability and sustainability of the project.
Keywords: Supply chain management, Multi-objective optimisation, Deep uncertainty, Scenario planning, Renewable energy,
[1165]
B. Shahriari, K. Swersky, Z. Wang, R. P. Adams, and Nando de Freitas. Taking the human out of the loop: A review of Bayesian optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(1):148–175, 2016.
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Bobak Shahriari, Kevin Swersky, Ziyu Wang, Ryan P. Adams, and Nando de Freitas. Taking the Human Out of the Loop: A Review of Bayesian Optimization. Proceedings of the IEEE, 104(1):148–175, 2016.
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Ofer M. Shir and Thomas Bäck. Niching with derandomized evolution strategies in artificial and real-world landscapes. Natural Computing, 8(1):171–196, 2009.
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[1168]
David Shilane, Jarno Martikainen, Sandrine Dudoit, and Seppo J. Ovaska. A general framework for statistical performance comparison of evolutionary computation algorithms. Information Sciences, 178(14):2870–2879, 2008.
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[1169]
Michael D. Shields and Jiaxin Zhang. The generalization of Latin hypercube sampling. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 148:96–108, 2016.
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A. Shmygelska and Holger H. Hoos. An Ant Colony Optimisation Algorithm for the 2D and 3D Hydrophobic Polar Protein Folding Problem. BMC Bioinformatics, 6:30, 2005.
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[1171]
Moisés Silva-Muñoz, Alberto Franzin, and Hughes Bersini. Automatic configuration of the Cassandra database using irace. PeerJ Computer Science, 7:e634, 2021.
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[1172]
Paulo Vitor Silvestrin and Marcus Ritt. An Iterated Tabu Search for the Multi-compartment Vehicle Routing Problem. Computers & Operations Research, 81:192–202, 2017.
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Marcos Melo Silva, Anand Subramanian, and Luiz Satoru Ochi. An Iterated Local Search Heuristic for the Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem. Computers & Operations Research, 53:234–249, 2015.
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Olivier Simonin, François Charpillet, and Eric Thierry. Revisiting wavefront construction with collective agents: an approach to foraging. Swarm Intelligence, 9(2):113–138, 2014.
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Keywords: irace
[1175]
Kevin Sim, Emma Hart, and Ben Paechter. A Lifelong Learning Hyper-heuristic Method for Bin Packing. Evolutionary Computation, 23(1):37–67, 2015.
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[1176]
Joseph P. Simmons, Leif D. Nelson, and Uri Simonsohn. False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Presenting Anything as Significant. Psychological Science, 2011.
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Proposed the term p-hacking
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Hemant Kumar Singh, Amitay Isaacs, and Tapabrata Ray. A Pareto Corner Search Evolutionary Algorithm and Dimensionality Reduction in Many-Objective Optimization Problems. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 15(4):539–556, 2011.
bib | DOI ]
Many-objective optimization refers to the optimization problems containing large number of objectives, typically more than four. Non-dominance is an inadequate strategy for convergence to the Pareto front for such problems, as almost all solutions in the population become non-dominated, resulting in loss of convergence pressure. However, for some problems, it may be possible to generate the Pareto front using only a few of the objectives, rendering the rest of the objectives redundant. Such problems may be reducible to a manageable number of relevant objectives, which can be optimized using conventional multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). For dimensionality reduction, most proposals in the paper rely on analysis of a representative set of solutions obtained by running a conventional MOEA for a large number of generations, which is computationally overbearing. A novel algorithm, Pareto corner search evolutionary algorithm (PCSEA), is introduced in this paper, which searches for the corners of the Pareto front instead of searching for the complete Pareto front. The solutions obtained using PCSEA are then used for dimensionality reduction to identify the relevant objectives. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by studying its performance on a set of benchmark test problems and two engineering examples. While the preliminary results obtained using PCSEA are promising, there are a number of areas that need further investigation. This paper provides a number of useful insights into dimensionality reduction and, in particular, highlights some of the roadblocks that need to be cleared for future development of algorithms attempting to use few selected solutions for identifying relevant objectives
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Ankur Sinha, Dhish Kumar Saxena, Kalyanmoy Deb, and Ashutosh Tiwari. Using objective reduction and interactive procedure to handle many-objective optimization problems. Applied Soft Computing, 13(1):415–427, 2013.
bib | DOI ]
A number of practical optimization problems are posed as many-objective (more than three objectives) problems. Most of the existing evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithms, which target the entire Pareto-front are not equipped to handle many-objective problems. Though there have been copious efforts to overcome the challenges posed by such problems, there does not exist a generic procedure to effectively handle them. This paper presents a simplify and solve framework for handling many-objective optimization problems. In that, a given problem is simplified by identification and elimination of the redundant objectives, before interactively engaging the decision maker to converge to the most preferred solution on the Pareto-optimal front. The merit of performing objective reduction before interacting with the decision maker is two fold. Firstly, the revelation that certain objectives are redundant, significantly reduces the complexity of the optimization problem, implying lower computational cost and higher search efficiency. Secondly, it is well known that human beings are not efficient in handling several factors (objectives in the current context) at a time. Hence, simplifying the problem a priori addresses the fundamental issue of cognitive overload for the decision maker, which may help avoid inconsistent preferences during the different stages of interactive engagement. The implementation of the proposed framework is first demonstrated on a three-objective problem, followed by its application on two real-world engineering problems.
Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, Evolutionary multi- and many-objective optimization, Multi-criteria decision making, Machine learning, Interactive optimization
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Hemant Kumar Singh, Kalyan Shankar Bhattacharjee, and Tapabrata Ray. Distance-based subset selection for benchmarking in evolutionary multi/many-objective optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 23(5):904–912, 2019.
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Aymen Sioud and Caroline Gagné. Enhanced migrating birds optimization algorithm for the permutation flow shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. European Journal of Operational Research, 264(1):66–73, 2018.
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Ben G. Small, Barry W. McColl, Richard Allmendinger, Jürgen Pahle, Gloria López-Castejón, Nancy J. Rothwell, Joshua D. Knowles, Pedro Mendes, David Brough, and Douglas B. Kell. Efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory small-molecule combinations using evolutionary computing. Nature Chemical Biology, 7(12):902–908, 2011.
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Kate Smith-Miles and Simon Bowly. Generating New Test Instances by Evolving in Instance Space. Computers & Operations Research, 63:102–113, 2015.
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Proposed ACOR (ACOR)
Keywords: ACOR
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Christine Solnon. Ants Can Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 6(4):347–357, 2002.
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Kenneth Sörensen, Florian Arnold, and Daniel Palhazi Cuervo. A critical analysis of the “improved Clarke and Wright savings algorithm”. International Transactions in Operational Research, 26(1):54–63, 2017.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: reproducibility, vehicle routing
[1197]
Jorge A. Soria-Alcaraz, Gabriela Ochoa, Marco A. Sotelo-Figeroa, and Edmund K. Burke. A Methodology for Determining an Effective Subset of Heuristics in Selection Hyper-heuristics. European Journal of Operational Research, 260:972–983, 2017.
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Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Capping Methods for the Automatic Configuration of Optimization Algorithms. Computers & Operations Research, 139:105615, 2022.
bib | DOI | supplementary material ]
Automatic configuration techniques are widely and successfully used to find good parameter settings for optimization algorithms. Configuration is costly, because it is necessary to evaluate many configurations on different instances. For decision problems, when the objective is to minimize the running time of the algorithm, many configurators implement capping methods to discard poor configurations early. Such methods are not directly applicable to optimization problems, when the objective is to optimize the cost of the best solution found, given a predefined running time limit. We propose new capping methods for the automatic configuration of optimization algorithms. They use the previous executions to determine a performance envelope, which is used to evaluate new executions and cap those that do not satisfy the envelope conditions. We integrate the capping methods into the irace configurator and evaluate them on different optimization scenarios. Our results show that the proposed methods can save from about 5% to 78% of the configuration effort, while finding configurations of the same quality. Based on the computational analysis, we identify two conservative and two aggressive methods, that save an average of about 20% and 45% of the configuration effort, respectively. We also provide evidence that capping can help to better use the available budget in scenarios with a configuration time limit.
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Daniel A. Spielman and Shang-Hua Teng. Smoothed analysis of algorithms: Why the simplex algorithm usually takes polynomial time. Journal of the ACM, 51(3):385–463, 2004.
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Keywords: branch-and-bound, multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling, project scheduling
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We consider the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP). The focus of the paper is on a formal definition of semi-active, active, and non-delay schedules. Traditionally these schedules establish basic concepts within the job shop scheduling literature. There they are usually defined in a rather informal way which does not create any substantial problems. Using these concepts in the more general RCPSP without giving a formal definition may cause serious problems. After providing a formal definition of semi-active, active, and non-delay schedules for the RCPSP we outline some of these problems occurring within the disjunctive arc concept.
Keywords: active schedules, Branch-and-bound methods, non-delay schedules, Resource-constrained project scheduling, Semi-active schedules
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T. J. Stewart, Simon French, and Jesus Rios. Integrating multicriteria decision analysis and scenario planning: Review and extension. Omega, 41(4):679–688, 2013.
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Keywords: Multicriteria decision analysis
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Daniel H. Stolfi and Enrique Alba. Red Swarm: Reducing travel times in smart cities by using bio-inspired algorithms. Applied Soft Computing, 24:181–195, 2014.
bib | DOI ]
This article presents an innovative approach to solve one of the most relevant problems related to smart mobility: the reduction of vehicles' travel time. Our original approach, called Red Swarm, suggests a potentially customized route to each vehicle by using several spots located at traffic lights in order to avoid traffic jams by using {V2I} communications. That is quite different from other existing proposals, as it deals with real maps and actual streets, as well as several road traffic distributions. We propose an evolutionary algorithm (later efficiently parallelized) to optimize our case studies which have been imported from OpenStreetMap into {SUMO} as they belong to a real city. We have also developed a Rerouting Algorithm which accesses the configuration of the Red Swarm and communicates the route chosen to vehicles, using the spots (via WiFi link). Moreover, we have developed three competing algorithms in order to compare their results to those of Red Swarm and have observed that Red Swarm not only achieved the best results, but also outperformed the experts' solutions in a total of 60 scenarios tested, with up to 19% shorter travel times.
Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm,Road traffic,Smart city,Smart mobility,Traffic light,WiFi connections
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Proposed differential evolution
[1216]
Victoria Stodden, Jennifer Seiler, and Zhaokun Ma. An empirical analysis of journal policy effectiveness for computational reproducibility. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(11):2584–2589, March 2018.
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Patrycja Strycharczuk, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Georgina Brown, and Adrian Leemann. General Northern English: Exploring regional variation in the North of England with machine learning. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 3(48), 2020.
bib | DOI ]
In this paper, we present a novel computational approach to the analysis of accent variation. The case study is dialect leveling in the North of England, manifested as reduction of accent variation across the North and emergence of General Northern English (GNE), a pan-regional standard accent associated with middle-class speakers. We investigated this instance of dialect leveling using random forest classification, with audio data from a crowd-sourced corpus of 105 urban, mostly highly-educated speakers from five northern UK cities: Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle upon Tyne, and Sheffield. We trained random forest models to identify individual northern cities from a sample of other northern accents, based on first two formant measurements of full vowel systems. We tested the models using unseen data. We relied on undersampling, bagging (bootstrap aggregation) and leave-one-out cross-validation to address some challenges associated with the data set, such as unbalanced data and relatively small sample size. The accuracy of classification provides us with a measure of relative similarity between different pairs of cities, while calculating conditional feature importance allows us to identify which input features (which vowels and which formants) have the largest influence in the prediction. We do find a considerable degree of leveling, especially between Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield, although some differences persist. The features that contribute to these differences most systematically are typically not the ones discussed in previous dialect descriptions. We propose that the most systematic regional features are also not salient, and as such, they serve as sociolinguistic regional indicators. We supplement the random forest results with a more traditional variationist description of by-city vowel systems, and we use both sources of evidence to inform a description of the vowels of General Northern English.
Keywords: vowels, accent features, dialect leveling, Random forest (bagging), Feature selecion
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Enforcing safety is a key aspect of many problems pertaining to sequential decision making under uncertainty, which require the decisions made at every step to be both informative of the optimal decision and also safe. For example, we value both efficacy and comfort in medical therapy, and efficiency and safety in robotic control. We consider this problem of optimizing an unknown utility function with absolute feedback or preference feedback subject to unknown safety constraints. We develop an efficient safe Bayesian optimization algorithm, StageOpt, that separates safe region expansion and utility function maximization into two distinct stages. Compared to existing approaches which interleave between expansion and optimization, we show that StageOpt is more efficient and naturally applicable to a broader class of problems. We provide theoretical guarantees for both the satisfaction of safety constraints as well as convergence to the optimal utility value. We evaluate StageOpt on both a variety of synthetic experiments, as well as in clinical practice. We demonstrate that StageOpt is more effective than existing safe optimization approaches, and is able to safely and effectively optimize spinal cord stimulation therapy in our clinical experiments.
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In chemistry and materials science, researchers and engineers discover, design, and optimize chemical compounds or materials with their professional knowledge and techniques. At the highest level of abstraction, this process is formulated as black-box optimization. For instance, the trial-and-error process of synthesizing various molecules for better material properties can be regarded as optimizing a black-box function describing the relation between a chemical formula and its properties. Various black-box optimization algorithms have been developed in the machine learning and statistics communities. Recently, a number of researchers have reported successful applications of such algorithms to chemistry. They include the design of photofunctional molecules and medical drugs, optimization of thermal emission materials and high Li-ion conductive solid electrolytes, and discovery of a new phase in inorganic thin films for solar cells.There are a wide variety of algorithms available for black-box optimization, such as Bayesian optimization, reinforcement learning, and active learning. Practitioners need to select an appropriate algorithm or, in some cases, develop novel algorithms to meet their demands. It is also necessary to determine how to best combine machine learning techniques with quantum mechanics- and molecular mechanics-based simulations, and experiments. In this Account, we give an overview of recent studies regarding automated discovery, design, and optimization based on black-box optimization. The Account covers the following algorithms: Bayesian optimization to optimize the chemical or physical properties, an optimization method using a quantum annealer, best-arm identification, gray-box optimization, and reinforcement learning. In addition, we introduce active learning and boundless objective-free exploration, which may not fall into the category of black-box optimization.Data quality and quantity are key for the success of these automated discovery techniques. As laboratory automation and robotics are put forward, automated discovery algorithms would be able to match human performance at least in some domains in the near future.
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Abstract In this paper, we discuss the idea of incorporating preference information into evolutionary multi-objective optimization and propose a preference-based evolutionary approach that can be used as an integral part of an interactive algorithm. One algorithm is proposed in the paper. At each iteration, the decision maker is asked to give preference information in terms of his or her reference point consisting of desirable aspiration levels for objective functions. The information is used in an evolutionary algorithm to generate a new population by combining the fitness function and an achievement scalarizing function. In multi-objective optimization, achievement scalarizing functions are widely used to project a given reference point into the Pareto optimal set. In our approach, the next population is thus more concentrated in the area where more preferred alternatives are assumed to lie and the whole Pareto optimal set does not have to be generated with equal accuracy. The approach is demonstrated by numerical examples.
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We propose a decomposition-based interactive evolutionary algorithm (EA) for multiple objective optimization. During an evolutionary search, a decision maker (DM) is asked to compare pairwise solutions from the current population. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the proposed algorithm generates from a uniform distribution a set of instances of the preference model compatible with such an indirect preference information. These instances are incorporated as the search directions with the aim of systematically converging a population toward the DMs most preferred region of the Pareto front. The experimental comparison proves that the proposed decomposition-based method outperforms the state-of-the-art interactive counterparts of the dominance-based EAs. We also show that the quality of constructed solutions is highly affected by the form of the incorporated preference model.
Keywords: interactive multi-objective; decision-making
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Michal K Tomczyk and Milosz Kadziński. EMOSOR: Evolutionary multiple objective optimization guided by interactive stochastic ordinal regression. Computers & Operations Research, 108:134–154, 2019.
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We propose a family of algorithms, called EMOSOR, combining Evolutionary Multiple Objective Optimization with Stochastic Ordinal Regression. The proposed methods ask the Decision Maker (DM) to holistically compare, at regular intervals, a pair of solutions, and use the Monte Carlo simulation to construct a set of preference model instances compatible with such indirect and incomplete information. The specific variants of EMOSOR are distinguished by the following three aspects. Firstly, they make use of two different preference models, i.e., either an additive value function or a Chebyshev function. Secondly, they aggregate the acceptability indices derived from the stochastic analysis in various ways, and use thus constructed indicators or relations to sort the solutions obtained in each generation. Thirdly, they incorporate different active learning strategies for selecting pairs of solutions to be critically judged by the DM. The extensive computational experiments performed on a set of benchmark optimization problems reveal that EMOSOR is able to bias an evolutionary search towards a part of the Pareto front being the most relevant to the DM, outperforming in this regard the state-of-the-art interactive evolutionary hybrids. Moreover, we demonstrate that the performance of EMOSOR improves in case the forms of a preference model used by the method and the DM's value system align. Furthermore, we discuss how vastly incorporation of different indicators based on the stochastic acceptability indices influences the quality of both the best constructed solution and an entire population. Finally, we demonstrate that our novel questioning strategies allow to reduce a number of interactions with the DM until a high-quality solution is constructed or, alternatively, to discover a better solution after the same number of interactions.
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Michal K Tomczyk and Milosz Kadziński. Decomposition-based co-evolutionary algorithm for interactive multiple objective optimization. Information Sciences, 549:178–199, 2021.
bib | DOI ]
We propose a novel co-evolutionary algorithm for interactive multiple objective optimization, named CIEMO/D. It aims at finding a region in the Pareto front that is highly relevant to the Decision Maker (DM). For this reason, CIEMO/D asks the DM, at regular intervals, to compare pairs of solutions from the current population and uses such preference information to bias the evolutionary search. Unlike the existing interactive evolutionary algorithms dealing with just a single population, CIEMO/D co-evolves a pool of subpopulations in a steady-state decomposition-based evolutionary framework. The evolution of each subpopulation is driven by the use of a different preference model. In this way, the algorithm explores various regions in the objective space, thus increasing the chances of finding DM's most preferred solution. To improve the pace of the evolutionary search, CIEMO/D allows for the migration of solutions between different subpopulations. It also dynamically alters the subpopulations' size based on compatibility between the incorporated preference models and the decision examples supplied by the DM. The extensive experimental evaluation reveals that CIEMO/D can successfully adjust to different DM's decision policies. We also compare CIEMO/D with selected state-of-the-art interactive evolutionary hybrids that make use of the DM's pairwise comparisons, demonstrating its high competitiveness.
Keywords: Evolutionary multiple objective optimization, Co-evolution, Decomposition, Indirect preference information, Preference learning
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The application of multi-objective optimisation to evolutionary robotics is receiving increasing attention. A survey of the literature reveals the different possibilities it offers to improve the automatic design of efficient and adaptive robotic systems, and points to the successful demonstrations available for both task-specific and task-agnostic approaches (i.e., with or without reference to the specific design problem to be tackled). However, the advantages of multi-objective approaches over single-objective ones have not been clearly spelled out and experimentally demonstrated. This paper fills this gap for task-specific approaches: starting from well-known results in multi-objective optimisation, we discuss how to tackle commonly recognised problems in evolutionary robotics. In particular, we show that multi-objective optimisation (i) allows evolving a more varied set of behaviours by exploring multiple trade-offs of the objectives to optimise, (ii) supports the evolution of the desired behaviour through the introduction of objectives as proxies, (iii) avoids the premature convergence to local optima possibly introduced by multi-component fitness functions, and (iv) solves the bootstrap problem exploiting ancillary objectives to guide evolution in the early phases. We present an experimental demonstration of these benefits in three different case studies: maze navigation in a single robot domain, flocking in a swarm robotics context, and a strictly collaborative task in collective robotics.
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Interactive multiobjective optimization (IMO) aims at finding the most preferred solution of a decision maker with the guidance of his/her preferences which are provided progressively. During the process, the decision maker can adjust his/her preferences and explore only interested regions of the search space. In recent decades, IMO has gradually become a common interest of two distinct communities, namely, the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) and the evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO). The IMO methods developed by the MCDM community usually use the mathematical programming methodology to search for a single preferred Pareto optimal solution, while those which are rooted in EMO often employ evolutionary algorithms to generate a representative set of solutions in the decision maker's preferred region. This paper aims to give a review of IMO research from both MCDM and EMO perspectives. Taking into account four classification criteria including the interaction pattern, preference information, preference model, and search engine (i.e., optimization algorithm), a taxonomy is established to identify important IMO factors and differentiate various IMO methods. According to the taxonomy, state-of-the-art IMO methods are categorized and reviewed and the design ideas behind them are summarized. A collection of important issues, e.g., the burdens, cognitive biases and preference inconsistency of decision makers, and the performance measures and metrics for evaluating IMO methods, are highlighted and discussed. Several promising directions worthy of future research are also presented.
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Anytime algorithms give intelligent systems the capability to trade deliberation time for quality of results. This capability is essential for successful operation in domains such as signal interpretation, real-time diagnosis and repair, and mobile robot control. What characterizes these domains is that it is not feasible (computationally) or desirable (economically) to compute the optimal answer. This article surveys the main control problems that arise when a system is composed of several anytime algorithms. These problems relate to optimal management of uncertainty and precision. After a brief introduction to anytime computation, I outline a wide range of existing solutions to the metalevel control problem and describe current work that is aimed at increasing the applicability of anytime computation.
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Heavy industry maintenance facilities at aircraft service centers or railroad yards must contend with scheduling preventive maintenance tasks to ensure critical equipment remains available. The workforce that performs these tasks are often high-paid, which means the task scheduling should minimize worker idle time. Idle time can always be minimized by reducing the workforce. However, all preventive maintenance tasks should be completed as quickly as possible to make equipment available. This means the completion time should be also minimized. Unfortunately, a small workforce cannot complete many maintenance tasks per hour. Hence, there is a tradeoff: should the workforce be small to reduce idle time or should it be large so more maintenance can be performed each hour? A cost effective schedule should strike some balance between a minimum schedule and a minimum size workforce. This paper uses evolutionary algorithms to solve this multiobjective problem. However, rather than conducting a conventional dominance-based Pareto search, we introduce a form of utility theory to find Pareto optimal solutions. The advantage of this method is the user can target specific subsets of the Pareto front by merely ranking a small set of initial solutions. A large example problem is used to demonstrate our method.
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We consider an optimization scenario in which resources are required in the evaluation process of candidate solutions. The challenge we are focussing on is that certain resources have to be committed to for some period of time whenever they are used by an optimizer. This has the effect that certain solutions may be temporarily non-evaluable during the optimization. Previous analysis revealed that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be effective against this resourcing issue when augmented with static strategies for dealing with non-evaluable solutions, such as repairing, waiting, or penalty methods. Moreover, it is possible to select a suitable strategy for resource-constrained problems offline if the resourcing issue is known in advance. In this paper we demonstrate that an EA that uses a reinforcement learning (RL) agent, here Sarsa(λ), to learn offline when to switch between static strategies, can be more effective than any of the static strategies themselves. We also show that learning the same task as the RL agent but online using an adaptive strategy selection method, here D-MAB, is not as effective; nevertheless, online learning is an alternative to static strategies.
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Keywords: QAP, EDA, Mallows
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A. Auger and B. Doerr, editors. Theory of Randomized Search Heuristics: Foundations and Recent Developments, volume 1 of Series on Theoretical Computer Science. World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 2011.
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Anne Auger and Nikolaus Hansen. A restart CMA evolution strategy with increasing population size. In Proceedings of the 2005 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2005), pp.  1769–1776, Piscataway, NJ, September 2005. IEEE Press.
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Keywords: IPOP-CMA-ES
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Anne Auger and Nikolaus Hansen. Performance evaluation of an advanced local search evolutionary algorithm. In Proceedings of the 2005 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2005), pp.  1777–1784, Piscataway, NJ, September 2005. IEEE Press.
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Andreea Avramescu, Richard Allmendinger, and Manuel López-Ibáñez. A Multi-Objective Multi-Type Facility Location Problem for the Delivery of Personalised Medicine. In P. Castillo and J. L. Jiménez Laredo, editors, Applications of Evolutionary Computation, volume 12694 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  388–403. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2021.
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Advances in personalised medicine targeting specific sub-populations and individuals pose a challenge to the traditional pharmaceutical industry. With a higher level of personalisation, an already critical supply chain is facing additional demands added by the very sensitive nature of its products. Nevertheless, studies concerned with the efficient development and delivery of these products are scarce. Thus, this paper presents the case of personalised medicine and the challenges imposed by its mass delivery. We propose a multi-objective mathematical model for the location-allocation problem with two interdependent facility types in the case of personalised medicine products. We show its practical application through a cell and gene therapy case study. A multi-objective genetic algorithm with a novel population initialisation procedure is used as solution method.
Keywords: Personalised medicine, Biopharmaceuticals Supply chain, Facility location-allocation, Evolutionary multi-objective optimisation
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Doǧan Aydın, Gürcan Yavuz, Serdar Özyön, Celal Yasar, and Thomas Stützle. Artificial Bee Colony Framework to Non-convex Economic Dispatch Problem with Valve Point Effects: A Case Study. In P. A. N. Bosman, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2017, pp.  1311–1318. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2017.
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Multi-objective optimisation problems involve finding solutions with varying trade-offs between multiple and often conflicting objectives. Ising machines are physical devices that aim to find the absolute or approximate ground states of an Ising model. To apply Ising machines to multi-objective problems, a weighted sum objective function is used to convert multi-objective into single-objective problems. However, deriving scalarisation weights that archives evenly distributed solutions across the Pareto front is not trivial. Previous work has shown that adaptive weights based on dichotomic search, and one based on averages of previously explored weights can explore the Pareto front quicker than uniformly generated weights. However, these adaptive methods have only been applied to bi-objective problems in the past. In this work, we extend the adaptive method based on averages in two ways: (i) we extend the adaptive method of deriving scalarisation weights for problems with two or more objectives, and (ii) we use an alternative measure of distance to improve performance. We compare the proposed method with existing ones and show that it leads to the best performance on multi-objective Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming (mUBQP) instances with 3 and 4 objectives and that it is competitive with the best one for instances with 2 objectives.
ISBN: 979-8-4007-0120-7
Keywords: digital annealer, multi-objective, bi-objective QAP, QUBO
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Mayowa Ayodele, Richard Allmendinger, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Matthieu Parizy. Multi-Objective QUBO Solver: Bi-Objective Quadratic Assignment Problem. In J. E. Fieldsend and M. Wagner, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2022, pp.  467–475. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2022.
bib | DOI ]
Quantum and quantum-inspired optimisation algorithms are designed to solve problems represented in binary, quadratic and unconstrained form. Combinatorial optimisation problems are therefore often formulated as Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimisation Problems (QUBO) to solve them with these algorithms. Moreover, these QUBO solvers are often implemented using specialised hardware to achieve enormous speedups, e.g. Fujitsu's Digital Annealer (DA) and D-Wave's Quantum Annealer. However, these are single-objective solvers, while many real-world problems feature multiple conflicting objectives. Thus, a common practice when using these QUBO solvers is to scalarise such multi-objective problems into a sequence of single-objective problems. Due to design trade-offs of these solvers, formulating each scalarisation may require more time than finding a local optimum. We present the first attempt to extend the algorithm supporting a commercial QUBO solver as a multi-objective solver that is not based on scalarisation. The proposed multi-objective DA algorithm is validated on the bi-objective Quadratic Assignment Problem. We observe that algorithm performance significantly depends on the archiving strategy adopted, and that combining DA with non-scalarisation methods to optimise multiple objectives outperforms the current scalarised version of the DA in terms of final solution quality.
Keywords: digital annealer, multi-objective, bi-objective QAP, QUBO
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Domagoj Babić and Frank Hutter. Spear Theorem Prover. In SAT'08: Proceedings of the SAT 2008 Race, 2008.
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Keywords: Iterated Race
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Thomas Bartz-Beielstein and Sandor Markon. Tuning search algorithms for real-world applications: A regression tree based approach. In Proceedings of the 2004 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2004), pp.  1111–1118, Piscataway, NJ, September 2004. IEEE Press.
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Thomas Bartz-Beielstein and Mike Preuss. Considerations of budget allocation for sequential parameter optimization (SPO). In L. Paquete, M. Chiarandini, and D. Basso, editors, Empirical Methods for the Analysis of Algorithms, Workshop EMAA 2006, Proceedings, pp.  35–40, Reykjavik, Iceland, 2006.
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Benjamín Barán and Matilde Schaerer. A multiobjective ant colony system for vehicle routing problem with time windows. In Proceedings of the Twenty-first IASTED International Conference on Applied Informatics, pp.  97–102, Insbruck, Austria, 2003.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Generation of Multi-Objective ACO Algorithms for the Biobjective Knapsack. In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Swarm Intelligence, 8th International Conference, ANTS 2012, volume 7461 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  37–48. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Generation of MOACO Algorithms for the Biobjective Bidimensional Knapsack Problem: Supplementary material. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2012-008/, 2012.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. An Analysis of Local Search for the Bi-objective Bidimensional Knapsack: Supplementary material. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2012-016/, 2013.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Deconstructing Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms: An Iterative Analysis on the Permutation Flowshop: Supplementary material. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2013-010/, 2013.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. An Analysis of Local Search for the Bi-objective Bidimensional Knapsack Problem. In M. Middendorf and C. Blum, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2013 – 13th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, volume 7832 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  85–96. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2013.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Component-Wise Design of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2014-012, IRIDIA, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, August 2014.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Deconstructing Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms: An Iterative Analysis on the Permutation Flowshop. In P. M. Pardalos, M. G. C. Resende, C. Vogiatzis, and J. L. Walteros, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 8th International Conference, LION 8, volume 8426 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  57–172. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Design of Evolutionary Algorithms for Multi-Objective Combinatorial Optimization. In T. Bartz-Beielstein, J. Branke, B. Filipič, and J. Smith, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XIII, volume 8672 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  508–517. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. To DE or Not to DE? Multi-objective Differential Evolution Revisited from a Component-Wise Perspective: Supplementary material. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2015-001/, 2015.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. To DE or Not to DE? Multi-objective Differential Evolution Revisited from a Component-Wise Perspective. In A. Gaspar-Cunha, C. H. Antunes, and C. A. Coello Coello, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2015 Part I, volume 9018 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  48–63. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2015.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Comparing Decomposition-Based and Automatically Component-Wise Designed Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. In A. Gaspar-Cunha, C. H. Antunes, and C. A. Coello Coello, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2015 Part I, volume 9018 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  396–410. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2015.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. A Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation of High-Performing Multi- and Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2015-007/, 2017.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. A Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation of High-Performing Multi- and Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2017-005, IRIDIA, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, February 2017.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. An Empirical Assessment of the Properties of Inverted Generational Distance Indicators on Multi- and Many-objective Optimization. In H. Trautmann, G. Rudolph, K. Klamroth, O. Schütze, M. M. Wiecek, Y. Jin, and C. Grimme, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2017, volume 10173 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  31–45. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 2017.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatically Designing State-of-the-Art Multi- and Many-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms: Supplementary material. https://github.com/iridia-ulb/automoea-ecj-2020, 2019.
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Hao Wang, Chaoli Sun, Yaochu Jin, Shufen Qin, and Haibo Yu. A Multi-indicator based Selection Strategy for Evolutionary Many-objective Optimization. In Proceedings of the 2019 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2019), pp.  2042–2049, Piscataway, NJ, 2019. IEEE Press.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Archiver Effects on the Performance of State-of-the-art Multi- and Many-objective Evolutionary Algorithms. In M. López-Ibáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2019. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2019.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Archiver Effects on the Performance of State-of-the-art Multi- and Many-objective Evolutionary Algorithms: Supplementary material. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2019-004/, 2019.
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Leonardo C. T. Bezerra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Configuration of Multi-objective Optimizers and Multi-objective Configuration. In T. Bartz-Beielstein, B. Filipič, P. Korošec, and E.-G. Talbi, editors, High-Performance Simulation-Based Optimization, pp.  69–92. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 2020.
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Heuristic optimizers are an important tool in academia and industry, and their performance-optimizing configuration requires a significant amount of expertise. As the proper configuration of algorithms is a crucial aspect in the engineering of heuristic algorithms, a significant research effort has been dedicated over the last years towards moving this step to the computer and, thus, make it automatic. These research efforts go way beyond tuning only numerical parameters of already fully defined algorithms, but exploit automatic configuration as a means for automatic algorithm design. In this chapter, we review two main aspects where the research on automatic configuration and multi-objective optimization intersect. The first is the automatic configuration of multi-objective optimizers, where we discuss means and specific approaches. In addition, we detail a case study that shows how these approaches can be used to design new, high-performing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms. The second aspect is the research on multi-objective configuration, that is, the possibility of using multiple performance metrics for the evaluation of algorithm configurations. We highlight some few examples in this direction.
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Leonora Bianchi, L. M. Gambardella, and Marco Dorigo. An Ant Colony Optimization Approach to the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem. In J.-J. Merelo et al., editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN VII, volume 2439 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  883–892. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2002.
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Armin Biere. Yet another Local Search Solver and Lingeling and Friends Entering the SAT Competition 2014. In A. Belov, D. Diepold, M. Heule, and M. Järvisalo, editors, Proceedings of SAT Competition 2014: Solver and Benchmark Descriptions, volume B-2014-2 of Science Series of Publications B, pp.  39–40. University of Helsinki, 2014.
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André Biedenkapp, H. Furkan Bozkurt, Theresa Eimer, Frank Hutter, and Marius Thomas Lindauer. Dynamic Algorithm Configuration: Foundation of a New Meta-Algorithmic Framework. In G. D. Giacomo, A. Catala, B. Dilkina, M. Milano, S. Barro, A. Bugarín, and J. Lang, editors, Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI), volume 325 of Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, pp.  427–434. IOS Press, 2020.
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André Biedenkapp, Marius Thomas Lindauer, Katharina Eggensperger, Frank Hutter, Chris Fawcett, and Holger H. Hoos. Efficient Parameter Importance Analysis via Ablation with Surrogates. In S. P. Singh and S. Markovitch, editors, Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. AAAI Press, February 2017.
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André Biedenkapp, Joshua Marben, Marius Thomas Lindauer, and Frank Hutter. Cave: Configuration assessment, visualization and evaluation. In R. Battiti, M. Brunato, I. Kotsireas, and P. M. Pardalos, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 12th International Conference, LION 12, volume 11353 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  115–130. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2018.
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George Bilchev and Ian C. Parmee. The Ant Colony Metaphor for Searching Continuous Design Spaces. In T. C. Fogarty, editor, Evolutionary Computing, AISB Workshop, volume 993 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  25–39. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1995.
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Mauro Birattari, Prasanna Balaprakash, and Marco Dorigo. The ACO/F-RACE algorithm for combinatorial optimization under uncertainty. In K. F. Doerner, M. Gendreau, P. Greistorfer, W. J. Gutjahr, R. F. Hartl, and M. Reimann, editors, Metaheuristics – Progress in Complex Systems Optimization, volume 39 of Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series, pp.  189–203. Springer, New York, NY, 2006.
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Mauro Birattari, Marco Chiarandini, Marco Saerens, and Thomas Stützle. Learning Graphical Models for Algorithm Configuration. In T. Berthold, A. M. Gleixner, S. Heinz, and T. Koch, editors, Integration of AI and OR Techniques in Contraint Programming for Combinatorial Optimization Problems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2011.
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Mauro Birattari, Gianni A. Di Caro, and Marco Dorigo. Toward the formal foundation of Ant Programming. In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Algorithms, Third International Workshop, ANTS 2002, volume 2463 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  188–201. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2002.
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Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, and Edward Loper. Natural language processing with Python: analyzing text with the natural language toolkit. O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2009.
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Mauro Birattari, Thomas Stützle, Luís Paquete, and Klaus Varrentrapp. A Racing Algorithm for Configuring Metaheuristics. In W. B. Langdon et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2002, pp.  11–18. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 2002.
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Keywords: F-race
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Mauro Birattari, Zhi Yuan, Prasanna Balaprakash, and Thomas Stützle. F-Race and Iterated F-Race: An Overview. In T. Bartz-Beielstein, M. Chiarandini, L. Paquete, and M. Preuss, editors, Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms, pp.  311–336. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
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Keywords: F-race, iterated F-race, irace, tuning
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Mauro Birattari, Zhi Yuan, Prasanna Balaprakash, and Thomas Stützle. Parameter Adaptation in Ant Colony Optimization. In M. Caserta and S. Voß, editors, Proceedings of MIC 2009, the 8th Metaheuristics International Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 2010. University of Hamburg.
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Mauro Birattari. Tuning Metaheuristics: A Machine Learning Perspective, volume 197 of Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009.
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Based on the PhD thesis [1527]
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Mauro Birattari. The Problem of Tuning Metaheuristics as Seen from a Machine Learning Perspective. PhD thesis, IRIDIA, École polytechnique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004.
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Francesco Biscani, Dario Izzo, and Chit Hong Yam. A Global Optimisation Toolbox for Massively Parallel Engineering Optimisation. In Astrodynamics Tools and Techniques (ICATT 2010), 4th International Conference on, 2010.
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Keywords: PaGMO
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Bernd Bischl, Olaf Mersmann, Heike Trautmann, and Mike Preuss. Algorithm Selection Based on Exploratory Landscape Analysis and Cost-sensitive Learning. In T. Soule and J. H. Moore, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2012, pp.  313–320. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2012.
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Keywords: continuous optimization, landscape analysis, algorithm selection
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Christopher M. Bishop. Pattern recognition and machine learning. Springer, 2006.
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Erdem Bıyık, Jonathan Margoliash, Shahrouz Ryan Alimo, and Dorsa Sadigh. Efficient and Safe Exploration in Deterministic Markov Decision Processes with Unknown Transition Models. In 2019 American Control Conference (ACC), pp.  1792–1799. IEEE, 2019.
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María J. Blesa and Christian Blum. Ant Colony Optimization for the Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths Problem. In G. R. Raidl et al., editors, Applications of Evolutionary Computing, Proceedings of EvoWorkshops 2004, volume 3005 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  160–169. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2004.
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John Blitzer, Ryan McDonald, and Fernando Pereira. Domain adaptation with structural correspondence learning. In D. Jurafsky and E. Gaussier, editors, Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, EMNLP2006, Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp.  120–128, 2006.
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Aymeric Blot, Holger H. Hoos, Laetitia Jourdan, Marie-Eléonore Kessaci-Marmion, and Heike Trautmann. MO-ParamILS: A Multi-objective Automatic Algorithm Configuration Framework. In P. Festa, M. Sellmann, and J. Vanschoren, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 10th International Conference, LION 10, volume 10079 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  32–47. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2016.
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Aymeric Blot, Laetitia Jourdan, and Marie-Eléonore Kessaci-Marmion. Automatic design of multi-objective local search algorithms: case study on a bi-objective permutation flowshop scheduling problem. In P. A. N. Bosman, editor, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2017, pp.  227–234. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2017.
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Aymeric Blot, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Marie-Eléonore Kessaci-Marmion, and Laetitia Jourdan. New Initialisation Techniques for Multi-Objective Local Search: Application to the Bi-objective Permutation Flowshop. In A. Auger, C. M. Fonseca, N. Lourenço, P. Machado, L. Paquete, and D. Whitley, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XV, volume 11101 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  323–334. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2018.
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Aymeric Blot, Alexis Pernet, Laetitia Jourdan, Marie-Eléonore Kessaci-Marmion, and Holger H. Hoos. Automatically Configuring Multi-objective Local Search Using Multi-objective Optimisation. In H. Trautmann, G. Rudolph, K. Klamroth, O. Schütze, M. M. Wiecek, Y. Jin, and C. Grimme, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2017, volume 10173 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  61–76. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 2017.
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Christian Blum, J. Bautista, and J. Pereira. Beam-ACO applied to assembly line balancing. In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Colony Optimization and Swarm Intelligence, 5th International Workshop, ANTS 2006, volume 4150 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  96–107. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006.
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Christian Blum, María J. Blesa, and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Beam Search for the Longest Common Subsequence Problem. Technical Report LSI-08-29, Department LSI, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 2008. Published in Computers & Operations Research [144].
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Christian Blum, Carlos Cotta, Antonio J. Fernández, and J. E. Gallardo. A probabilistic beam search algorithm for the shortest common supersequence problem. In C. Cotta et al., editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2007 – Seventh European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimisation, volume 4446 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  36–47. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
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Christian Blum and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Ant Colony Optimization. In The Industrial Electronics Handbook: Intelligent Systems. CRC Press, 2nd edition, 2011.
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Christian Blum and M. Mastrolilli. Using Branch & Bound Concepts in Construction-Based Metaheuristics: Exploiting the Dual Problem Knowledge. In T. Bartz-Beielstein, M. J. Blesa, C. Blum, B. Naujoks, A. Roli, G. Rudolph, and M. Sampels, editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics, volume 4771 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  123–139. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2007.
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C. Blum and D. Merkle, editors. Swarm Intelligence–Introduction and Applications. Natural Computing Series. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2008.
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Christian Blum and Günther R. Raidl. Hybrid Metaheuristics—Powerful Tools for Optimization. Artificial Intelligence: Foundations, Theory, and Algorithms. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2016.
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Christian Blum and Andrea Roli. Hybrid metaheuristics: an introduction. In C. Blum, M. J. Blesa, A. Roli, and M. Sampels, editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics: An emergent approach for optimization, volume 114 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pp.  1–30. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2008.
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Jakob Bossek, Pascal Kerschke, Aneta Neumann, Markus Wagner, Frank Neumann, and Heike Trautmann. Evolving Diverse TSP Instances by Means of Novel and Creative Mutation Operators. In T. Friedrich, C. Doerr, and D. V. Arnold, editors, Proceedings of the 15th ACM/SIGEVO Conference on Foundations of Genetic Algorithms, pp.  58–71. ACM, 2019.
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Cristóbal Barba-González, Vesa Ojalehto, José García-Nieto, Antonio J. Nebro, Kaisa Miettinen, and José F. Aldana-Montes. Artificial Decision Maker Driven by PSO: An Approach for Testing Reference Point Based Interactive Methods. In A. Auger, C. M. Fonseca, N. Lourenço, P. Machado, L. Paquete, and D. Whitley, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XV, volume 11101 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  274–285. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2018.
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Keywords: machine decision-maker
[1562]
Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Corrente, Salvatore Greco, Milosz Kadziński, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Vincent Mousseau, Mauro Munerato, and Roman Slowiński. Behavior-Realistic Artificial Decision-Makers to Test Preference-Based Multi-objective Optimization Method (Working Group “Machine Decision-Making”). In S. Greco, K. Klamroth, J. D. Knowles, and G. Rudolph, editors, Understanding Complexity in Multiobjective Optimization (Dagstuhl Seminar 15031), volume 5(1) of Dagstuhl Reports, pp.  110–116. Schloss Dagstuhl–Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Germany, 2015.
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Keywords: multiple criteria decision making, evolutionary multiobjective optimization
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Jürgen Branke and Kalyanmoy Deb. Integrating User Preferences into Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization. In Y. Jin, editor, Knowledge Incorporation in Evolutionary Computation, pp.  461–477. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005.
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Many real-world optimization problems involve multiple, typically conflicting objectives. Often, it is very difficult to weigh the different criteria exactly before alternatives are known. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization usually solves this predicament by searching for the whole Pareto-optimal front of solutions. However, often the user has at least a vague idea about what kind of solutions might be preferred. In this chapter, we argue that such knowledge should be used to focus the search on the most interesting (from a user's perspective) areas of the Paretooptimal front. To this end, we present and compare two methods which allow to integrate vague user preferences into evolutionary multi-objective algorithms. As we show, such methods may speed up the search and yield a more fine-grained selection of alternatives in the most relevant parts of the Pareto-optimal front.
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Yesnier Bravo, Javier Ferrer, Gabriel J. Luque, and Enrique Alba. Smart Mobility by Optimizing the Traffic Lights: A New Tool for Traffic Control Centers. In E. Alba, F. Chicano, and G. J. Luque, editors, Smart Cities (Smart-CT 2016), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  147–156. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2016.
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Urban traffic planning is a fertile area of Smart Cities to improve efficiency, environmental care, and safety, since the traffic jams and congestion are one of the biggest sources of pollution and noise. Traffic lights play an important role in solving these problems since they control the flow of the vehicular network at the city. However, the increasing number of vehicles makes necessary to go from a local control at one single intersection to a holistic approach considering a large urban area, only possible using advanced computational resources and techniques. Here we propose HITUL, a system that supports the decisions of the traffic control managers in a large urban area. HITUL takes the real traffic conditions and compute optimal traffic lights plans using bio-inspired techniques and micro-simulations. We compare our system against plans provided by experts. Our solutions not only enable continuous traffic flows but reduce the pollution. A case study of Málaga city allows us to validate the approach and show its benefits for other cities as well.
Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, Smart mobility, Traffic lights planning
[1565]
Jean-Pierre Brans and Bertrand Mareschal. PROMETHEE-GAIA. Une méthode d'aide à la décision en présence de critères multiples. Editions Ellipses, Paris, France, 2002.
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Jean-Pierre Brans and Bertrand Mareschal. PROMETHEE Methods. In J. R. Figueira, S. Greco, and M. Ehrgott, editors, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, State of the Art Surveys, chapter 5, pp.  163–195. Springer, 2005.
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Jürgen Branke, C. Schmidt, and H. Schmeck. Efficient fitness estimation in noisy environments. In E. D. Goodman, editor, Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, GECCO 2001, pp.  243–250. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 2001.
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Jürgen Branke, Salvatore Corrente, Salvatore Greco, Roman Slowiński, and P. Zielniewicz. Using Choquet integral as preference model in interactive evolutionary multiobjective optimization. Technical report, WBS, University of Warwick, 2014.
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Jürgen Branke and Jawad Elomari. Simultaneous tuning of metaheuristic parameters for various computing budgets. In N. Krasnogor and P. L. Lanzi, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2011, pp.  263–264. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2011.
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Keywords: meta-optimization, offline parameter optimization
[1570]
Jürgen Branke and Jawad Elomari. Racing with a Fixed Budget and a Self-Adaptive Significance Level. In P. M. Pardalos and G. Nicosia, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 7th International Conference, LION 7, volume 7997 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2013.
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Mátyás Brendel and Marc Schoenauer. Learn-and-Optimize: A Parameter Tuning Framework for Evolutionary AI Planning. In J.-K. Hao, P. Legrand, P. Collet, N. Monmarché, E. Lutton, and M. Schoenauer, editors, Artificial Evolution: 10th International Conference, Evolution Artificielle, EA, 2011, volume 7401 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  145–155. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
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Mátyás Brendel and Marc Schoenauer. Instance-based Parameter Tuning for Evolutionary AI Planning. In N. Krasnogor and P. L. Lanzi, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2011, pp.  591–598. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2011.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich. Approximating the Least Hypervolume Contributor: NP-Hard in General, But Fast in Practice. In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.-K. Hao, and M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  6–20. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2009.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich. The Maximum Hypervolume Set Yields Near-optimal Approximation. In M. Pelikan and J. Branke, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2010, pp.  511–518. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2010.
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Proved that hypervolume approximates the additive ε-indicator, converging quickly as N increases, that is, sets that maximize hypervolume are near optimal on additive ε too, with the gap diminishing as quickly as O(1/N).
[1576]
Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich. Tight bounds for the approximation ratio of the hypervolume indicator. In R. Schaefer, C. Cotta, J. Kolodziej, and G. Rudolph, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, PPSN XI, volume 6238 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  607–616. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2010.
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Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich. Convergence of Hypervolume-Based Archiving Algorithms I: Effectiveness. In N. Krasnogor and P. L. Lanzi, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2011, pp.  745–752. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2011.
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Extended version published as [181]
[1578]
Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich. Convergence of Hypervolume-Based Archiving Algorithms II: Competitiveness. In T. Soule and J. H. Moore, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2012, pp.  457–464. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2012.
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Extended version published as [181]
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Karl Bringmann, Tobias Friedrich, and Patrick Klitzke. Generic postprocessing via subset selection for hypervolume and epsilon-indicator. In T. Bartz-Beielstein, J. Branke, B. Filipič, and J. Smith, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XIII, volume 8672 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  518–527. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.
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Karl Bringmann, Tobias Friedrich, and Patrick Klitzke. Two-dimensional subset selection for hypervolume and epsilon-indicator. In C. Igel and D. V. Arnold, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2014. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2014.
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[1581]
Andre Britto and Aurora Pozo. Using archiving methods to control convergence and diversity for many-objective problems in particle swarm optimization. In Proceedings of the 2012 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2012), pp.  1–8, Piscataway, NJ, 2012. IEEE Press.
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[1582]
Karl Bringmann and Tobias Friedrich. Don't be greedy when calculating hypervolume contributions. In I. I. Garibay, T. Jansen, R. P. Wiegand, and A. S. Wu, editors, Proceedings of the Tenth ACM SIGEVO Workshop on Foundations of Genetic Algorithms (FOGA), pp.  103–112. ACM, 2009.
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Karl Bringmann, Tobias Friedrich, Frank Neumann, and Markus Wagner. Approximation-guided Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization. In T. Walsh, editor, Proceedings of the 22nd International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-11), pp.  1198–1203. IJCAI/AAAI Press, Menlo Park, CA, 2011.
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Dimo Brockhoff. A Bug in the Multiobjective Optimizer IBEA: Salutary Lessons for Code Release and a Performance Re-Assessment. In A. Gaspar-Cunha, C. H. Antunes, and C. A. Coello Coello, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2015 Part I, volume 9018 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  187–201. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2015.
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[1585]
Dimo Brockhoff, Roberto Calandra, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Frank Neumann, and Selvakumar Ulaganathan. Meta-modeling for (interactive) multi-objective optimization (WG5). In K. Klamroth, J. D. Knowles, G. Rudolph, and M. M. Wiecek, editors, Personalized Multiobjective Optimization: An Analytics Perspective (Dagstuhl Seminar 18031), volume 8(1) of Dagstuhl Reports, pp.  85–94. Schloss Dagstuhl–Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Germany, 2018.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: multiple criteria decision making, evolutionary multiobjective optimization
[1586]
Dimo Brockhoff, Tobias Friedrich, N. Hebbinghaus, C. Klein, Frank Neumann, and Eckart Zitzler. Do Additional Objectives Make a Problem Harder? In D. Thierens et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2007, pp.  765–772. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2007.
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[1587]
Dimo Brockhoff, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Boris Naujoks, and Günther Rudolph. Runtime Analysis of Simple Interactive Evolutionary Biobjective Optimization Algorithms. In C. A. Coello Coello et al., editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XII, Part I, volume 7491 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  123–132. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
bib | DOI ]
Development and deployment of interactive evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms (EMOAs) have recently gained broad interest. In this study, first steps towards a theory of interactive EMOAs are made by deriving bounds on the expected number of function evaluations and queries to a decision maker. We analyze randomized local search and the (1+1)-EA on the biobjective problems LOTZ and COCZ under the scenario that the decision maker interacts with these algorithms by providing a subjective preference whenever solutions are incomparable. It is assumed that this decision is based on the decision maker's internal utility function. We show that the performance of the interactive EMOAs may dramatically worsen if the utility function is non-linear instead of linear.
[1588]
Dimo Brockhoff, Dhish Kumar Saxena, Kalyanmoy Deb, and Eckart Zitzler. On Handling a Large Number of Objectives A Posteriori and During Optimization. In J. D. Knowles, D. Corne, K. Deb, and D. R. Chair, editors, Multiobjective Problem Solving from Nature, Natural Computing Series, pp.  377–403. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008.
bib | DOI ]
Dimensionality reduction methods are used routinely in statistics, pattern recognition, data mining, and machine learning to cope with high-dimensional spaces. Also in the case of high-dimensional multiobjective optimization problems, a reduction of the objective space can be beneficial both for search and decision making. New questions arise in this context, e.g., how to select a subset of objectives while preserving most of the problem structure. In this chapter, two different approaches to the task of objective reduction are developed, one based on assessing explicit conflicts, the other based on principal component analysis (PCA). Although both methods use different principles and preserve different properties of the underlying optimization problems, they can be effectively utilized either in an a posteriori scenario or during search. Here, we demonstrate the usability of the conflict-based approach in a decision-making scenario after the search and show how the principal-component-based approach can be integrated into an evolutionary multicriterion optimization (EMO) procedure.
[1589]
Dimo Brockhoff and Tea Tušar. Benchmarking algorithms from the platypus framework on the biobjective bbob-biobj testbed. In M. López-Ibáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2019, pp.  1905–1911. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2019.
bib | DOI | epub ]
Keywords: unbounded archive
[1590]
Dimo Brockhoff, Tobias Wagner, and Heike Trautmann. On the properties of the R2 indicator. In T. Soule and J. H. Moore, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2012, pp.  465–472. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2012.
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Proof that R2 is weakly Pareto compliant.
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Dimo Brockhoff and Eckart Zitzler. Are All Objectives Necessary? On Dimensionality Reduction in Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization. In T. P. Runarsson, H.-G. Beyer, E. K. Burke, J.-J. Merelo, D. Whitley, and X. Yao, editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN IX, volume 4193 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  533–542. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006.
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Most of the available multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) for approximating the Pareto set have been designed for and tested on low dimensional problems (≤3 objectives). However, it is known that problems with a high number of objectives cause additional difficulties in terms of the quality of the Pareto set approximation and running time. Furthermore, the decision making process becomes the harder the more objectives are involved. In this context, the question arises whether all objectives are necessary to preserve the problem characteristics. One may also ask under which conditions such an objective reduction is feasible, and how a minimum set of objectives can be computed. In this paper, we propose a general mathematical framework, suited to answer these three questions, and corresponding algorithms, exact and heuristic ones. The heuristic variants are geared towards direct integration into the evolutionary search process. Moreover, extensive experiments for four well-known test problems show that substantial dimensionality reductions are possible on the basis of the proposed methodology.
[1592]
Dimo Brockhoff and Eckart Zitzler. Dimensionality Reduction in Multiobjective Optimization: The Minimum Objective Subset Problem. In K.-H. Waldmann and U. M. Stocker, editors, Operations Research Proceedings 2006, pp.  423–429. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007.
bib | DOI ]
The number of objectives in a multiobjective optimization problem strongly influences both the performance of generating methods and the decision making process in general. On the one hand, with more objectives, more incomparable solutions can arise, the number of which affects the generating method's performance. On the other hand, the more objectives are involved the more complex is the choice of an appropriate solution for a (human) decision maker. In this context, the question arises whether all objectives are actually necessary and whether some of the objectives may be omitted; this question in turn is closely linked to the fundamental issue of conflicting and non-conflicting optimization criteria. Besides a general definition of conflicts between objective sets, we here introduce the NP-hard problem of computing a minimum subset of objectives without losing information (MOSS). Furthermore, we present for MOSS both an approximation algorithm with optimum approximation ratio and an exact algorithm which works well for small input instances. We conclude with experimental results for a random problem and the multiobjective 0/1-knapsack problem
Keywords: objective reduction
[1593]
Dimo Brockhoff and Eckart Zitzler. Improving hypervolume-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithms by using objective reduction methods. In Proceedings of the 2007 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2007), pp.  2086–2093, Piscataway, NJ, 2007. IEEE Press.
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Keywords: objective reduction
[1594]
Artur Brum and Marcus Ritt. Automatic Design of Heuristics for Minimizing the Makespan in Permutation Flow Shops. In Proceedings of the 2018 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2018), pp.  1–8, Piscataway, NJ, 2018. IEEE Press.
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Artur Brum and Marcus Ritt. Automatic Algorithm Configuration for the Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Minimizing Total Completion Time. In A. Liefooghe and M. López-Ibáñez, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2018 – 18th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, volume 10782 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  85–100. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2018.
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T. N. Bui and J. R. Rizzo, Jr. Finding Maximum Cliques with Distributed Ants. In K. Deb et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2004, Part I, volume 3102 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  24–35. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2004.
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Edmund K. Burke and Yuri Bykov. The Late Acceptance Hill-Climbing Heuristic. Technical Report CSM-192, University of Stirling, 2012.
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Edmund K. Burke, Matthew R. Hyde, Graham Kendall, and John R. Woodward. Automatic Heuristic Generation with Genetic Programming: Evolving a Jack-of-all-trades or a Master of One. In D. Thierens et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2007, pp.  1559–1565. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2007.
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Edmund K. Burke, Matthew R. Hyde, Graham Kendall, Gabriela Ochoa, Ender Özcan, and John R. Woodward. A Classification of Hyper-Heuristic Approaches: Revisited. In M. Gendreau and J.-Y. Potvin, editors, Handbook of Metaheuristics, volume 272 of International Series in Operations Research & Management Science, chapter 14, pp.  453–477. Springer, 2019.
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Rainer E. Burkard, Eranda Çela, Panos M. Pardalos, and L. S. Pitsoulis. The quadratic assignment problem. In P. M. Pardalos and D.-Z. Du, editors, Handbook of Combinatorial Optimization, volume 2, pp.  241–338. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
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Maxim Buzdalov. Towards better estimation of statistical significance when comparing evolutionary algorithms. In M. López-Ibáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2019, pp.  1782–1788. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2019.
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Nicola Beume, Carlos M. Fonseca, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Luís Paquete, and Jan Vahrenhold. On the Complexity of Computing the Hypervolume Indicator. Technical Report CI-235/07, University of Dortmund, December 2007. Published in IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation [121].
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Borja Calvo, Ofer M. Shir, Josu Ceberio, Carola Doerr, Hao Wang, Thomas Bäck, and José A. Lozano. Bayesian Performance Analysis for Black-box Optimization Benchmarking. In M. López-Ibáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2019, pp.  1789–1797. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2019.
bib | DOI | epub ]
Keywords: bayesian inference, benchmarking, black-box optimization, evolutionary algorithms, performance measures, plackett-luce model
[1606]
Christian Leonardo Camacho-Villalón, Marco Dorigo, and Thomas Stützle. Why the Intelligent Water Drops Cannot Be Considered as a Novel Algorithm. In M. Dorigo, M. Birattari, A. L. Christensen, A. Reina, and V. Trianni, editors, Swarm Intelligence, 11th International Conference, ANTS 2018, volume 11172 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  302–314. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2018.
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Paolo Campigotto and Andrea Passerini. Adapting to a realistic decision maker: experiments towards a reactive multi-objective optimizer. In C. Blum and R. Battiti, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 4th International Conference, LION 4, volume 6073 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  338–341. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2010.
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Christian Leonardo Camacho-Villalón, Thomas Stützle, and Marco Dorigo. Grey Wolf, Firefly and Bat Algorithms: Three Widespread Algorithms that Do Not Contain Any Novelty. In M. Dorigo, T. Stützle, M. J. Blesa, C. Blum, H. Hamann, and M. K. Heinrich, editors, Swarm Intelligence, 12th International Conference, ANTS 2020, volume 12421 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  121–133. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2020.
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Felipe Campelo, Áthila R. Trindade, and Manuel López-Ibáñez. Pseudoreplication in Racing Methods for Tuning Metaheuristics. In preparation, 2017.
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E. Cantú-Paz. Efficient and Accurate Parallel Genetic Algorithms. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 2000.
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P. Cardoso, M. Jesus, and A. Marquez. MONACO: multi-objective network optimisation based on an ACO. In Proc. X Encuentros de Geometría Computacional, Seville, Spain, 2003.
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Alex Guimarães Cardoso de Sá, Walter José G. S. Pinto, Luiz Otávio Vilas Boas Oliveira, and Gisele Pappa. RECIPE: A Grammar-Based Framework for Automatically Evolving Classification Pipelines. In J. McDermott, M. Castelli, L. Sekanina, E. Haasdijk, and P. García-Sánchez, editors, Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Genetic Programming, EuroGP 2017, volume 10196 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  246–261. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2017.
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Ioannis Caragiannis, Ariel D. Procaccia, and Nisarg Shah. When Do Noisy Votes Reveal the Truth? In M. J. Kearns, R. P. McAfee, and É. Tardos, editors, Proceedings of the Fourteenth ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, pp.  143–160. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2013.
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A well-studied approach to the design of voting rules views them as maximum likelihood estimators; given votes that are seen as noisy estimates of a true ranking of the alternatives, the rule must reconstruct the most likely true ranking. We argue that this is too stringent a requirement, and instead ask: How many votes does a voting rule need to reconstruct the true ranking? We define the family of pairwise-majority consistent rules, and show that for all rules in this family the number of samples required from the Mallows noise model is logarithmic in the number of alternatives, and that no rule can do asymptotically better (while some rules like plurality do much worse). Taking a more normative point of view, we consider voting rules that surely return the true ranking as the number of samples tends to infinity (we call this property accuracy in the limit); this allows us to move to a higher level of abstraction. We study families of noise models that are parametrized by distance functions, and find voting rules that are accurate in the limit for all noise models in such general families. We characterize the distance functions that induce noise models for which pairwise-majority consistent rules are accurate in the limit, and provide a similar result for another novel family of position-dominance consistent rules. These characterizations capture three well-known distance functions.
Keywords: computer social choice, mallows model, sample complexity
[1614]
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Several methods based on Kriging have recently been proposed for calculating a probability of failure involving costly-to-evaluate functions. A closely related problem is to estimate the set of inputs leading to a response exceeding a given threshold. Now, estimating such a level set—and not solely its volume—and quantifying uncertainties on it are not straightforward. Here we use notions from random set theory to obtain an estimate of the level set, together with a quantification of estimation uncertainty. We give explicit formulae in the Gaussian process set-up and provide a consistency result. We then illustrate how space-filling versus adaptive design strategies may sequentially reduce level set estimation uncertainty.
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Keywords: machine DM, interactive EMOA
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Marco Chiarandini and Yuri Goegebeur. Mixed Models for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms. In T. Bartz-Beielstein, M. Chiarandini, L. Paquete, and M. Preuss, editors, Experimental Methods for the Analysis of Optimization Algorithms, pp.  225–264. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2010.
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Preliminary version available as Tech. Rep. MF-2009-07-001 at the The Danish Mathematical Society
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Keywords: multi-objective, surrogate models, epsilon, hypervolume
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S. Chusanapiputt, D. Nualhong, S. Jantarang, and S. Phoomvuthisarn. Selective self-adaptive approach to ant system for solving unit commitment problem. In M. Cattolico et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2006, pp.  1729–1736. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2006.
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Christian Cintrano, Javier Ferrer, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Enrique Alba. Hybridization of Racing Methods with Evolutionary Operators for Simulation Optimization of Traffic Lights Programs. In C. Zarges and S. Verel, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2021 – 21th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, volume 12692 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  17–33. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2021.
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In many real-world optimization problems, like the traffic light scheduling problem tackled here, the evaluation of candidate solutions requires the simulation of a process under various scenarios. Thus, good solutions should not only achieve good objective function values, but they must be robust (low variance) across all different scenarios. Previous work has revealed the effectiveness of IRACE for this task. However, the operators used by IRACE to generate new solutions were designed for configuring algorithmic parameters, that have various data types (categorical, numerical, etc.). Meanwhile, evolutionary algorithms have powerful operators for numerical optimization, which could help to sample new solutions from the best ones found in the search. Therefore, in this work, we propose a hybridization of the elitist iterated racing mechanism of IRACE with evolutionary operators from differential evo- lution and genetic algorithms. We consider a realistic case study derived from the traffic network of Malaga (Spain) with 275 traffic lights that should be scheduled optimally. After a meticulous study, we discovered that the hybrid algorithm comprising IRACE plus differential evolution offers statistically better results than conventional algorithms and also improves travel times and reduces pollution.
Extended version published in Evolutionary Computation journal [255].
Keywords: Hybrid algorithms, Evolutionary algorithms, Simulation optimization, Uncertainty, Traffic light planning
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In its current state, evolutionary multiobjective optimization (EMO) is an established field of research and application with more than 150 PhD theses, more than ten dedicated texts and edited books, commercial softwares and numerous freely downloadable codes, a biannual conference series running successfully since 2001, special sessions and workshops held at all major evolutionary computing conferences, and full-time researchers from universities and industries from all around the globe. In this chapter, we provide a brief introduction to EMO principles, illustrate some EMO algorithms with simulated results, and outline the current research and application potential of EMO. For solving multiobjective optimization problems, EMO procedures attempt to find a set of well-distributed Pareto-optimal points, so that an idea of the extent and shape of the Pareto-optimal front can be obtained. Although this task was the early motivation of EMO research, EMO principles are now being found to be useful in various other problem solving tasks, enabling one to treat problems naturally as they are. One of the major current research thrusts is to combine EMO procedures with other multiple criterion decision making (MCDM) tools so as to develop hybrid and interactive multiobjective optimization algorithms for finding a set of trade-off optimal solutions and then choose a preferred solution for implementation. This chapter provides the background of EMO principles and their potential to launch such collaborative studies with MCDM researchers in the coming years.
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Kalyanmoy Deb. Multi-Objective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Wiley, Chichester, UK, 2001.
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Kalyanmoy Deb and S. Agrawal. A Niched-Penalty Approach for Constraint Handling in Genetic Algorithms. In A. Dobnikar, N. C. Steele, D. W. Pearson, and R. F. Albrecht, editors, Artificial Neural Nets and Genetic Algorithms (ICANNGA-99), pp.  235–243. Springer Verlag, 1999.
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Keywords: polynomial mutation
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Kalyanmoy Deb, S. Agarwal, A. Pratap, and T. Meyarivan. A fast elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization: NSGA-II. In M. Schoenauer et al., editors, Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN VI, volume 1917 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  849–858. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2000.
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Kalyanmoy Deb and Sachin Jain. Multi-Speed Gearbox Design Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms. Technical Report 2002001, KanGAL, February 2002.
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Kalyanmoy Deb and Christie Myburgh. Breaking the billion-variable barrier in real-world optimization using a customized evolutionary algorithm. In T. Friedrich, F. Neumann, and A. M. Sutton, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2016, pp.  653–660. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2016.
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Kalyanmoy Deb and Ankur Sinha. Solving Bilevel Multi-Objective Optimization Problems Using Evolutionary Algorithms. In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.-K. Hao, and M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  110–124. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2009.
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Kalyanmoy Deb and J. Sundar. Reference point based multi-objective optimization using evolutionary algorithms. In M. Cattolico et al., editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2006, pp.  635–642. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2006.
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Proposed R-NSGA-II
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Kalyanmoy Deb, Rahul Tewari, Mayur Dixit, and Joydeep Dutta. Finding trade-off solutions close to KKT points using evolutionary multi-objective optimization. In Proceedings of the 2007 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2007), pp.  2109–2116, Piscataway, NJ, 2007. IEEE Press.
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Keywords: DTLZ benchmark
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Kalyanmoy Deb, Lothar Thiele, Marco Laumanns, and Eckart Zitzler. Scalable Test Problems for Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization. In A. Abraham, L. Jain, and R. Goldberg, editors, Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing, pp.  105–145. Springer, London, UK, January 2005.
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Marcelo De Souza and Marcus Ritt. An Automatically Designed Recombination Heuristic for the Test-Assignment Problem. In Proceedings of the 2018 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2018), pp.  1–8, Piscataway, NJ, 2018. IEEE Press.
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Marcelo De Souza and Marcus Ritt. Automatic Grammar-Based Design of Heuristic Algorithms for Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming. In A. Liefooghe and M. López-Ibáñez, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2018 – 18th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, volume 10782 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  67–84. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2018.
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[1701]
Marcelo De Souza and Marcus Ritt. Hybrid Heuristic for Unconstrained Binary Quadratic Programming – Source Code of HHBQP. https://github.com/souzamarcelo/hhbqp, 2018.
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Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Leslie Pérez Cáceres. ACVIZ: A Tool for the Visual Analysis of the Configuration of Algorithms with irace – Source Code. https://github.com/souzamarcelo/acviz, 2020.
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Marcelo De Souza, Marcus Ritt, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Leslie Pérez Cáceres. ACVIZ: Algorithm Configuration Visualizations for irace: Supplementary material. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4714582, September 2020.
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Sophie Dewez. On the toll setting problem. PhD thesis, Faculté de Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 2014.
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Diego Díaz, Pablo Valledor, Paula Areces, Jorge Rodil, and Montserrat Suárez. An ACO Algorithm to Solve an Extended Cutting Stock Problem for Scrap Minimization in a Bar Mill. In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Swarm Intelligence, 9th International Conference, ANTS 2014, volume 8667 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  13–24. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014.
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Luca Di Gaspero, Marco Chiarandini, and Andrea Schaerf. A Study on the Short-Term Prohibition Mechanisms in Tabu Search. In G. Brewka, S. Coradeschi, A. Perini, and P. Traverso, editors, Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ECAI 2006, Riva del Garda, Italy, August29 - September 1, 2006, pp.  83–87. IOS Press, 2006.
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Luca Di Gaspero, Andrea Rendl, and Tommaso Urli. Constraint-Based Approaches for Balancing Bike Sharing Systems. In C. Schulte, editor, Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, volume 8124 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  758–773. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2013.
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Keywords: F-race
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Luca Di Gaspero, Andrea Rendl, and Tommaso Urli. A Hybrid ACO+CP for Balancing Bicycle Sharing Systems. In M. J. Blesa, C. Blum, P. Festa, A. Roli, and M. Sampels, editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics, volume 7919 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  198–212. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2013.
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Keywords: F-race
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Daniel Doblas, Antonio J. Nebro, Manuel López-Ibáñez, José García-Nieto, and Carlos A. Coello Coello. Automatic Design of Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimizers. In M. Dorigo, H. Hamann, M. López-Ibáñez, J. García-Nieto, A. Engelbrecht, C. Pinciroli, V. Strobel, and C. L. Camacho-Villalón, editors, Swarm Intelligence, 13th International Conference, ANTS 2022, volume 13491 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  28–40. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2022.
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Marco Dorigo, Vittorio Maniezzo, and Alberto Colorni. Positive Feedback as a Search Strategy. Technical Report 91-016, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, 1991.
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Marco Dorigo, Marco A. Montes de Oca, Sabrina Oliveira, and Thomas Stützle. Ant Colony Optimization. In J. J. Cochran, editor, Wiley Encyclopedia of Operations Research and Management Science, volume 1, pp.  114–125. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.
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Marco Dorigo and Thomas Stützle. Ant Colony Optimization. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004.
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Marco Dorigo. Optimization, Learning and Natural Algorithms. PhD thesis, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, 1992. In Italian.
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Johann Dréo, Carola Doerr, and Yann Semet. Coupling the design of benchmark with algorithm in landscape-aware solver design. In M. López-Ibáñez, A. Auger, and T. Stützle, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2019, pp.  1419–1420. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2019.
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Johann Dréo, Arnaud Liefooghe, Sébastien Verel, Marc Schoenauer, Juan-Julián Merelo, Alexandre Quemy, Benjamin Bouvier, and Jan Gmys. Paradiseo: from a modular framework for evolutionary computation to the automated design of metaheuristics: 22 years of Paradiseo. In F. Chicano and K. Krawiec, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO Companion 2021, pp.  1522–1530. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2021.
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Keywords: metaheuristics, evolutionary computation, software framework, automated algorithm design
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Johann Dréo and P. Siarry. A New Ant Colony Algorithm Using the Heterarchical Concept Aimed at Optimization of Multiminima Continuous Functions. In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Algorithms, Third International Workshop, ANTS 2002, volume 2463 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  216–221. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2002.
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Keywords: metaheuristic ; continuous optimization ; global optimization ; imagery ; registration ; ant colony algorithm ; estimation of distribution algorithm ; evolutionary computation ; métaheuristique ; optimisation continue ; optimisation globale ; imagerie ; biomédical ; recalage ; algorithme de colonie de fourmis ; algorithme à estimation de distribution ; algorithme évolutionnaire
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Stefan Droste, Thomas Jansen, and Ingo Wegener. A new framework for the valuation of algorithms for black-box-optimization. In K. A. De Jong, R. Poli, and J. E. Rowe, editors, Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Foundations of Genetic Algorithms (FOGA), pp.  253–270. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2002.
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Chris Drummond. Replicability is not Reproducibility: Nor is it Good Science. In Proceedings of the Evaluation Methods for Machine Learning Workshop at the 26th ICML, Montreal, Canada, 2009.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste. Weight Setting Strategies for Two-Phase Local Search: A Study on Biobjective Permutation Flowshop Scheduling. Technical Report TR/IRIDIA/2009-024, IRIDIA, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Holger H. Hoos, and Thomas Stützle. On the Empirical Scaling Behaviour of State-of-the-art Local Search Algorithms for the Euclidean TSP. In S. Silva and A. I. Esparcia-Alcázar, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2015, pp.  377–384. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2015.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Effective Hybrid Stochastic Local Search Algorithms for Biobjective Permutation Flowshop Scheduling. In M. J. Blesa, C. Blum, L. Di Gaspero, A. Roli, M. Sampels, and A. Schaerf, editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics, volume 5818 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  100–114. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2009.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Supplementary material: Improving the Anytime Behavior of Two-Phase Local Search. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2010-012, 2010.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Supplementary material: A Hybrid TP+PLS Algorithm for Bi-objective Flow-shop Scheduling Problems. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2010-001, 2010.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Adaptive “Anytime” Two-Phase Local Search. In C. Blum and R. Battiti, editors, Learning and Intelligent Optimization, 4th International Conference, LION 4, volume 6073 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  52–67. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2010.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Automatic Configuration of State-of-the-art Multi-Objective Optimizers Using the TP+PLS Framework. In N. Krasnogor and P. L. Lanzi, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2011, pp.  2019–2026. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2011.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Pareto Local Search Algorithms for Anytime Bi-objective Optimization. In J.-K. Hao and M. Middendorf, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2012 – 12th European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, volume 7245 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  206–217. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2012.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Manuel López-Ibáñez, and Thomas Stützle. Combining Two Search Paradigms for Multi-objective Optimization: Two-Phase and Pareto Local Search. In E.-G. Talbi, editor, Hybrid Metaheuristics, volume 434 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pp.  97–117. Springer Verlag, 2013.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste, Federico Pagnozzi, and Thomas Stützle. Supplementary material: An iterated greedy algorithm with optimization of partial solutions for the permutation flowshop problem. http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/supp/IridiaSupp2013-006, 2017.
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Jérémie Dubois-Lacoste and Thomas Stützle. Tuning of a Stigmergy-based Traffic Light Controller as a Dynamic Optimization Problem. In Proceedings of the 2017 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2017), pp.  1–8, Piscataway, NJ, 2017. IEEE Press.
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Gunter Dueck, Martin Maehler, Johannes Schneider, Gerhard Schrimpf, and Hermann Stamm-Wilbrandt. Optimization with Ruin Recreate. US Patent 6,418,398 B1, July 2002. Filed on October 1, 1999 and granted on July 9, 2002; Assignee is IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY (US).
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Irina Dumitrescu and Thomas Stützle. Combinations of Local Search and Exact Algorithms. In G. R. Raidl and J. Gottlieb, editors, Proceedings of EvoCOP 2003 – 3rd European Conference on Evolutionary Computation in Combinatorial Optimization, volume 2611 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  211–223. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2003.
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Irina Dumitrescu and Thomas Stützle. Usage of Exact Algorithms to Enhance Stochastic Local Search Algorithms. In V. Maniezzo, T. Stützle, and S. Voß, editors, Matheuristics—Hybridizing Metaheuristics and Mathematical Programming, volume 10 of Annals of Information Systems, pp.  103–134. Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
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Juan J. Durillo, José García-Nieto, Antonio J. Nebro, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Francisco Luna, and Enrique Alba. Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimizers: An Experimental Comparison. In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.-K. Hao, and M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  495–509. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2009.
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Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has received increasing attention in the optimization research community since its first appearance in the mid-1990s. Regarding multi-objective optimization, a considerable number of algorithms based on Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimizers (MOPSOs) can be found in the specialized literature. Unfortunately, no experimental comparisons have been made in order to clarify which MOPSO version shows the best performance. In this paper, we use a benchmark composed of three well-known problem families (ZDT, DTLZ, and WFG) with the aim of analyzing the search capabilities of six representative state-of-the-art MOPSOs, namely, NSPSO, SigmaMOPSO, OMOPSO, AMOPSO, MOPSOpd, and CLMOPSO. We additionally propose a new MOPSO algorithm, called SMPSO, characterized by including a velocity constraint mechanism, obtaining promising results where the rest perform inadequately.
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Juan J. Durillo, Antonio J. Nebro, Francisco Luna, and Enrique Alba. On the Effect of the Steady-State Selection Scheme in Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms. In M. Ehrgott, C. M. Fonseca, X. Gandibleux, J.-K. Hao, and M. Sevaux, editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2009, volume 5467 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  183–197. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2009.
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Cynthia Dwork, Ravi Kumar, Moni Naor, and D. Sivakumar. Rank aggregation methods for the Web. In V. Y. Shen, N. Saito, M. R. Lyu, and M. E. Zurko, editors, Proceedings of the Tenth International World Wide Web Conference, WWW 10, pp.  613–622. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2001.
bib | DOI ]
Keywords: Kemeny ranking,multi-word queries,rank aggregation,ranking functions,spam
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Katharina Eggensperger, Frank Hutter, Holger H. Hoos, and Kevin Leyton-Brown. Efficient Benchmarking of Hyperparameter Optimizers via Surrogates. In B. Bonet and S. Koenig, editors, Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, pp.  1114–1120. AAAI Press, 2015.
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Matthias Ehrgott and Xavier Gandibleux. Hybrid Metaheuristics for Multi-objective Combinatorial Optimization. In C. Blum, M. J. Blesa, A. Roli, and M. Sampels, editors, Hybrid Metaheuristics: An emergent approach for optimization, volume 114 of Studies in Computational Intelligence, pp.  221–259. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2008.
bib | DOI ]
Many real-world optimization problems can be modelled as combinatorial optimization problems. Often, these problems are characterized by their large size and the presence of multiple, conflicting objectives. Despite progress in solving multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems exactly, the large size often means that heuristics are required for their solution in acceptable time. Since the middle of the nineties the trend is towards heuristics that “pick and choose” elements from several of the established metaheuristic schemes. Such hybrid approximation techniques may even combine exact and heuristic approaches. In this chapter we give an overview over approximation methods in multi-objective combinatorial optimization. We briefly summarize “classical” metaheuristics and focus on recent approaches, where metaheuristics are hybridized and/or combined with exact methods.
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Matthias Ehrgott. Multicriteria Optimization, volume 491 of Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2000.
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Matthias Ehrgott. Multicriteria Optimization. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2nd edition, 2005.
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Agoston E. Eiben, Mark Horvath, Wojtek Kowalczyk, and Martijn C. Schut. Reinforcement learning for online control of evolutionary algorithms. In International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organising Applications, pp.  151–160. Springer, 2006.
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Agoston E. Eiben and M. Jelasity. A critical note on experimental research methodology in EC. In Proceedings of the 2002 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'02), pp.  582–587, Piscataway, NJ, 2002. IEEE Press.
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Discusses reproducibility, generalizability and separation between training (for tuning and experimentation) and testing instances (for comparisons).
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Agoston E. Eiben, Zbigniew Michalewicz, Marc Schoenauer, and James E. Smith. Parameter Control in Evolutionary Algorithms. In F. Lobo, C. F. Lima, and Z. Michalewicz, editors, Parameter Setting in Evolutionary Algorithms, pp.  19–46. Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
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Mohammed El-Abd. Opposition-based Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. In N. Krasnogor and P. L. Lanzi, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, GECCO 2011, pp.  109–116. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2011.
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Nada Elsokkary, Faisal Shah Khan, Davide La Torre, Travis S. Humble, and Joel Gottlieb. Financial Portfolio Management using D-Wave's Quantum Optimizer: The Case of Abu Dhabi Securities Exchange. Technical report, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, TN, USA, 2017.
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Michael T. M. Emmerich, André H. Deutz, and J. W. Klinkenberg. Hypervolume-based expected improvement: Monotonicity properties and exact computation. In Proceedings of the 2011 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2011), pp.  2147–2154, Piscataway, NJ, 2011. IEEE Press.
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Proposed Expected Hypervolume Improvement (EHVI)
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Michael T. M. Emmerich and Carlos M. Fonseca. Computing Hypervolume Contributions in Low Dimensions: Asymptotically Optimal Algorithm and Complexity Results. In R. H. C. Takahashi et al., editors, Evolutionary Multi-criterion Optimization, EMO 2011, volume 6576 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  121–135. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2011.
bib | DOI ]
Given a finite set YRd of n mutually non-dominated vectors in d ≥2 dimensions, the hypervolume contribution of a point yY is the difference between the hypervolume indicator of Y and the hypervolume indicator of Y ∖ {y}. In multi-objective metaheuristics, hypervolume contributions are computed in several selection and bounded-size archiving procedures. This paper presents new results on the (time) complexity of computing all hypervolume contributions. It is proved that for d = 2 and 3 the problem has time complexity Θ(n logn), and, for d > 3, the time complexity is bounded below by Ω(n logn). Moreover, complexity bounds are derived for computing a single hypervolume contribution. A dimension sweep algorithm with time complexity O (n logn) and space complexity O(n) is proposed for computing all hypervolume contributions in three dimensions. It improves the complexity of the best known algorithm for d = 3 by a factor of √(n) . Theoretical results are complemented by performance tests on randomly generated test-problems.
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Stefan Eppe, Yves De Smet, and Thomas Stützle. A bi-objective optimization model to eliciting decision maker's preferences for the PROMETHEE II method. In R. I. Brafman, F. Roberts, and A. Tsoukiàs, editors, Algorithmic Decision Theory, Third International Conference, ADT 2011, volume 6992 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, pp.  56–66. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2011.
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Stefan Eppe, Manuel López-Ibáñez, Thomas Stützle, and Yves De Smet. An Experimental Study of Preference Model Integration into Multi-Objective Optimization Heuristics. In Proceedings of the 2011 Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC 2011), pp.  2751–2758, Piscataway, NJ, 2011. IEEE Press.
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Larry J. Eshelman, A. Caruana, and J. David Schaffer. Biases in the Crossover Landscape. In J. D. Schaffer, editor, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms (ICGA'89), pp.  86–91. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1989.
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Richard M. Everson, Jonathan E. Fieldsend, and Sameer Singh. Full Elite Sets for Multi-objective Optimisation. In Adaptive Computing in Design and Manufacture V, pp.  343–354. Springer, London, UK, 2002.
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C. J. Eyckelhof and M. Snoek. Ant Systems for a Dynamic TSP: Ants Caught in a Traffic Jam. In M. Dorigo et al., editors, Ant Algorithms, Third International Workshop, ANTS 2002, volume 2463 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp.  88–99. Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2002.
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The combinatorial search problem arising in feature selection in high dimensional spaces is considered. Recently developed techniques based on the classical sequential methods and the (l, r) search called Floating search algorithms are compared against the Genetic approach to feature subset search. Both approaches have been designed with the view to give a good compromise between efficiency and effectiveness for large problems. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of these techniques to high dimensional problems of feature selection. The aim is to establish whether the properties inferred for these techniques from medium scale experiments involving up to a few tens of dimensions extend to dimensionalities of one order of magnitude higher. Further, relative merits of these techniques vis-a-vis such high dimensional problems are explored and the possibility of exploiting the best aspects of these methods to create a composite feature selection procedure with superior properties is considered.
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The success of machine learning in a broad range of applications has led to an ever-growing demand for machine learning systems that can be used off the shelf by non-experts. To be effective in practice, such systems need to automatically choose a good algorithm and feature preprocessing steps for a new dataset at hand, and also set their respective hyperparameters. Recent work has started to tackle this automated machine learning (AutoML) problem with the help of efficient Bayesian optimization methods. Building on this, we introduce a robust new AutoML system based on the Python machine learning package scikit-learn (using 15 classifiers, 14 feature preprocessing methods, and 4 data preprocessing methods, giving rise to a structured hypothesis space with 110 hyperparameters). This system, which we dub Auto-sklearn, improves on existing AutoML methods by automatically taking into account past performance on similar datasets, and by constructing ensembles from the models evaluated during the optimization. Our system won six out of ten phases of the first ChaLearn AutoML challenge, and our comprehensive analysis on over 100 diverse datasets shows that it substantially outperforms the previous state of the art in AutoML. We also demonstrate the performance gains due to each of our contributions and derive insights into the effectiveness of the individual components of Auto-sklearn.
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The attainment function has been proposed as a measure of the statistical performance of stochastic multiobjective optimisers which encompasses both the quality of individual non-dominated solutions in objective space and their spread along the trade-off surface. It has also been related to results from random closed-set theory, and cast as a mean-like, first-order moment measure of the outcomes of multiobjective optimisers. In this work, the use of more informative, second-order moment measures for the evaluation and comparison of multiobjective optimiser performance is explored experimentally, with emphasis on the interpretability of the results.
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The attainment function provides a description of the location of the distribution of a random non-dominated point set. This function can be estimated from experimental data via its empirical counterpart, the empirical attainment function (EAF). However, computation of the EAF in more than two dimensions is a non-trivial task. In this article, the problem of computing the empirical attainment function is formalised, and upper and lower bounds on the corresponding number of output points are presented. In addition, efficient algorithms for the two and three-dimensional cases are proposed, and their time complexities are related to lower bounds derived for each case.
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This paper presents a recursive, dimension-sweep algorithm for computing the hypervolume indicator of the quality of a set of n non-dominated points in d>2 dimensions. It improves upon the existing HSO (Hypervolume by Slicing Objectives) algorithm by pruning the recursion tree to avoid repeated dominance checks and the recalculation of partial hypervolumes. Additionally, it incorporates a recent result for the three-dimensional special case. The proposed algorithm achieves O(nd-2 log n) time and linear space complexity in the worst-case, but experimental results show that the pruning techniques used may reduce the time complexity exponent even further.
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Reproducible research is the cornerstone of cumulative science and yet is one of the most serious crisis that we face today in all fields. This paper aims to describe the ongoing reproducible research crisis along with counter-arguments of whether it really is a crisis, suggest solutions to problems limiting reproducible research along with the tools to implement such solutions by covering the latest publications involving reproducible research.
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